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The UN has made strides toward and continues to fight for world peace, but this however is not the only function of the agency. Environmental protection, Human rights, health and medical research, alleviation of poverty and economic development, emergency and disaster relief, and labor and workers’ rights are just a sample of what the UN continues to battle as the year 2000 approaches.

The United Nations has made many achievements since the agreement made in 1945. The efforts of the UN helped end the apartheid in South Africa allowing the citizens of South Africa equal participation in the Elections of April 1994 followed by a consensus in choosing a form of government. 90 percent of children in developing countries attend school and 60 percent of adults in these countries can read and write thanks to the UN and the struggle to improve education in developing countries. Over 300 international treaties have been created through United Nations efforts to strengthen international law. These achievements and many others encourage people like myself to promote and praise the United Nations.

Without the UN the world would be a bigger place full of confusion and hatred. The efforts of this world organization have improved global life for all of its citizens and will continue to do so for many years to come.

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An Essay on the United Nations Organization (UNO)

The United Nations Organization was founded in 1945 soon after the end of the Second World War. It is a world body with a large number of sovereign states as its members. Similarly at end of the First World War, the League of Nations was formed. It dominated the world politics for ten or fifteen years after which its influence deteriorated. It could not stand groupism and power politics.

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Towards the end of the Second World War the need of a world body strong enough to prevent war was actually felt. In 1944 the three war-rime allies- the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union-met at Dumbarton Oaks. They thought of establishing an organization for the maintenance of “International Peace and Security and Co-operation in establishing political, economic and social conditions.” They drew up a number of proposals which latter on formed the basis of the U.N. Charter. In 1945 as-many-as fifty-one nations met at San Francisco and signed the U.N.O. Charter. Thus the United Nations Organization came into being.

The aims of the United Nations Organization are (1) to maintain international peace and security, (2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples, (3) to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all. (4) To act as a centre harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.

The Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia and China are the five permanent members. The duty of the Security Council is to investigate international disputes and to take suitable action in preventing danger to international peace. In order to make the decisions of Security Council effective, there should be unanimity in five permanent members. If nay one of these permanent members Vetoes the decision, it will be ineffective.

The General Assembly is next in importance to the Security Council. Every member nation has got one vote in the Assembly. The Security Council is an executive body whereas the General Assembly performs deliberative functions. It makes recommendations to the Security Council.

A number of other organizations also work under the U.N.O. these are (1) International Court of Justice. (2) International Monetary Fund, (3) The World Bank, (4) Food and Agricultural Organization, (5) united Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), (6) International Labor Organization (ILO), (7) The World Health Organization (WHO), (8) Trusteeship Council, (9) United Nation Development Programme, (10) United Nation Information and Children Education Foundation (UNICEF) etc. The secretariat of the UN draws its staff from the member nations. The head of the Secretariat is called the Secretary General.

One should attempt to asses what has really changed since 1945 and what has not changed. The biggest triumph of the U.N. is that it cherished dream of decolonization has become a reality.

What has not changed, no the other hand is the hegemony of north over the south.

The U.N. is actively involved resolving problems and we as citizens of our wide international community have the responsibility to enlighten ourselves and the people around us all about the significance of the U.N. The struggle for peace, justice and human dignity waged at the U.N. is very much the struggle of all the people of the world. Their support for it can make the repetitive setbacks a growing success.

The utility of the U.N.O. is a topic for hot controversy. So far it has dealt with a few problems. It has achieved partial success. In many cases it ahs failed, while in few cases it has succeeded. It is criticized for its failure. Of course, much can be said on both sides. It is, however, certain that it ahs justified its existence as the most practical instrument for peace ever devised through voluntary co-operation among different nations. So far it has refused to be a tool in the hands of any nation. This is the secret of its strength. It fills the peoples of the world with hope that it will prevent the outbreak of any devastating war.

The U.N.O. has held prolonged deliberations on the problem of disbarment. There is a great threat of total annihilation of humanity as a result of third world-war which would be certainly an atomic war. It is high time all the nations decide to give up the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes.

National and racial barriers combined with power-politics create great obstacle in the realization of objectives of the U.N. Charter. At present the U.N.O. is dominated by Western Powers, but this state of things is not going to last long. The newly liberated nations of Asia and Africa have come to their own and occupy and adequate position in world politics.

The Western Powers have set up a number of regional pacts NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Organization), the SEATO (the South East Asia Treat Organization), the Baghdad Pact etc. These regional pacts undermine the prestige of the U.N.O. and lead to groupism and power politics. The U.N.O. is not a super-star or World Government. It does not have coercive force. Its strength lies in the co-operation of its members.

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Essay on the United Nations Organization

After the First World War, people felt the necessity of an international organisation charged with the task of maintaining global peace. Thus, the League of Nations was the outcome of that feeling, after the 1st Great War. But it was found that nations were not willing to give up the jungle; whenever there was opposition to the expansionist designs of any nation, it ignored the mandate of the League.

It was thought that a resurgent Germany and a financially powerful Japan would be an effective check on Soviet Russia. But the result of this selfish policy was the Second World War. At the close of this Second catastrophe within twenty years, the minds of men again turned to evoking a more effective world organization, to establish peace on the basis of mutual understanding and toleration.

This organization was planned at a Conference of Nations held at Dumbarton Oaks, U.S.A., and at another held a few months later at San Francisco. It was named the United Nations Organisation (UNO) and was inaugurated on October 24, 1945.

Membership has doubled since its inauguration. The present strength is 180. New members are admitted if the five sponsoring nations, USA, USSR, UK, France and China agree among themselves.

The Organisation works in matters relating to threat to security and peace through a Council of eleven members (now raised to fifteen), called the Security Council, in which the sponsoring nations have permanent seats, the others are non-permanent and elected for two years.

The Security Council has very substantial powers, even of directly intervening militarily to stop warfares, to police peace by stationing an army of UNO, by applying sanction against errant and defiant nations. It elects for five years a person for the office of the Secretary General (from a neutral nation); it recommends the acceptance of new members and expulsion of existing members, if required.

The primary object of this organization is to maintain interna­tional peace, to develop friendly relations among nations, to solve economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems, to promote respect for human rights and freedom. As war is caused mainly by the jealousies and rivalries among the bigger powers, its rules require unanimity among these powers in carrying out the policy.

This means that any of the five permanent members of the Security Council may veto (i.e. cancel) any step, if it disapproves it. Apart from its political aims, the Organisation has an ambitious plan for promoting the welfare of peoples, and for this it has several subsidiary bodies, among which the more important are the International Monetary Fund (INF), the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organi­zation (UNESCO), the World Health Organisation (WHO), the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), Interna­tional Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the International Labour Organization (ILO), as also the Atomic Commission.

These bodies may not have achieved any spectacular success but they have helped nations to come closer for common humanitarian purposes. The goodwill fostered thereby has been considerable. There is the Trus­teeship Council requiring a nation in charge of a Trust territory or under-developed area to make an annual report to the Council of the progress in the country under its care. Another important organ is the international Court of Justice (at Hague) which decides over disagreements between nations about boundaries or interpretation of treaties.

But the UNO suffers from several grave defects which cause apprehensions for the future. In the first place, some of its leading members, like the USA have not appreciated change in world affairs, their policies remain authoritarian still.

The UNO, in the name of global peacekeeping organisation, has permitted nations to enter into defensive alliance, which may easily degenerate into offensive alli­ances. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and South Eastern Asiatic Treaty Organisation (SEATO) were formed in this way to encourage the setting up of Power Blocks that indulged in cold war for a long time. This went on till the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1993.

Now USA has emerged as a unipolar super power. USA has practically monopolised the power of the UNO and now make polices of world peace in the name of UNO authoratively. Iraq challenged this power for a time and is now completely in the grip of UNO i.e. USA by proxy.

Finally, the Big Powers have done their best to command the votes of the smaller nations in various ways, preventing them from acting with the independence that the Con­stitution of the world body contemplated. Of late, there has been a growing realisation, since the admission of many new members from Africa and Asia, that nations, particularly those which have newly attained nationhood, should be duly represented in the decisive bodies of the UNO.

India, since her independence, has been an enthusiastic supporter of the principles for which the UNO stands. Her contributions in this regard have been significant. She took the first opportunity to carry her dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir to the UNO and has loyally stood by her commitments in spite of the provocation she has received. She took the leading part in bringing about an armistice in Korea and in Indo-China. Her services have been praised by many countries. She played no mean part in helping to break through the hostility that had long separated the two-blocks. She has steadily refused to be drawn into any international political organization outside the UNO; she has upheld the cause of peace against much criticism and her policy of neutrality is the only policy that is consistent with genuine loyalty to the UNO.

As the leading force of the NAM (non-aligned countries), India has resisted many arbitrary moves of big powers. The way for the Geneva Conference of the leaders of the Great powers — the ‘Summit’ Conference, as it has been called — was paved and made smoothly by Pandit Nehru’s activity.

There are reasons to feel optimistic about the ultimate success of the United Nations Organization in fostering peace and goodwill among nations. Long fifty years have passed since the UNO was founded, and nations are coming nearer to each other and are better able to face the challenges before them.

It should be said to the credit of UNO that the third World War has been kept off so far by its efforts, though the big guns are not all silent. Skirmishes flare up here and there, not infrequently. Instead of deepening distrust and rancour, nations are developing a spirit of reasonableness and tolerance that is an auspicious augury for the future-The prompt intervention of the UNO in different international conflicts is a signal that mankind is at last coming to its senses.

The decision to explore the conditions for a stable peace is another welcome sign. For all these India should be made a permanent member of the Security Council in deference to the cause of peace. It is also imperative that the arbitrary veto power, enjoyed so far by five big powers, should be abolished in the interest of permanent global peace.

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United Nations and the Environment Essay

Essay Topic:

The role of UNEP in the world’s monitoring of water, air and land pollution.

Essay Questions:

How does the United Nations Organization influence the environmental global issues?

What are the UN’s major environmental issues and activities?

How are water, air and land pollution prevented with the help of the UNEP?

Thesis Statement:

Environment has suffered from many negative influences that need to be stopped or be prevented in order to be sure that future generations will be able to survive. UNEP is the program that does a lot for the planet in general and environment in particular.

United Nations and the Environment Essay

Table of contents:

2. Major environmental issues and UN’s activities:

a. Climate change

c. Air pollution

Introduction: Such a huge structure as the United Nations Organization includes several subsidiary organs, which deal with different types of issues. The environmental crisis has become a vital issues nowadays the UN did not leave it unnoticed and has addressed some of the major contemporary environmental issues. It created a special program called the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). UNEP proclaims environment for development and is aimed to save the best that nature has given Earth. Every person on the planet has already felt at least some minimal influences caused by constant deterioration of the environment. The pollution of water, soil and air by various numerous chemicals has produced a terrible effect on the planet’s environment. Most of the people live under a constant threat of a cataclysm. Recent “Katrina” and “Rita” events in the United States are the best proof. Environmental pollution causes a large number of awful diseases. Even a special branch of Law –Environmental Law has been created in order to prevent “environmental violence”. Urbanization has caused the destruction of valuable forests. One of the brightest examples is the situation in the Pacific North-West. Environment has suffered from many negative influences that need to be stopped or be prevented in order to be sure that future generations will be able to survive. UNEP is the program that does a lot for the planet in general and environment in particular. It took control over the major environmental issues such as: water, air pollution, climate change, proper land use and waste that create so much environmental troubles.

2. Major environmental issues and UN’s activities:

2.a. Climate change. The change of climate of the planet’s surface leads to the problem of greenhouse gases which “account for around 98% of the environmental pressure leading to climate change”[1]. They are: nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The activity of these gases leas to the Global Warming Effect, as all three of them are able to trap heat in the atmosphere. The danger lies in the Earth’s rising temperature, which makes the glaciers melt. All the energy that turns out to being the atmosphere finds a way out through natural cataclysms such as storms and others. The UNEP’s impact in the situation is great as it creates summits where countries give commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. UN membership makes them to be more responsible to their commitments. UN’s primary contribution into solving this problem was the agreement signed in Kyoto in December 1997 which started to function since February 2005. The agreement states that UN countries “shall individually or jointly reduce their aggregate emissions of a “basket” of six greenhouse gases to 5% below 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012”[1]. The best solution for this problem should be non-carbon energy, which is very expensive to install but safe in use. It goes without saying that it is very hard for the countries to change their energy sources, nevertheless is should be done for the sake of the planet and future generations. People need to reduce their energy spends and be committed to sustainable consumption.

2.b. Water. Water is the source of life for every single being on the planet. Therefore its quality dictates the level of the well being for these beings. Water is used for practically every sphere of human life. Water pollution has become the problem that needs rapid solutions. Lack of water causes loss of the harvest and even death of people from different diseases transmitted through water such as cholera. At the present moment, 460 million people live in territories with a water flaw [2]. The situation needs to change.The wastes, which are thrown into water, produce uneducable harm. The prognosis states that water obtained from aquifers is under threat due to the fact they can possibly collapse from such an intense use. Polluted water produces food unsuitable for eating and various diseases that create an unhealthy generation. This puts public water supply under danger, too. UNEP actively participates in finding a solution for the water issue. One of the brightest examples is the “Water for the Future” project, which includes cooperative work of UN countries over the proper water use. At the moment UNEP is trying to gather the data evaluating the water assessment on the planet in order to find the best way out of the water scarcity issue. It has already analyzed the long-term water resources, the public water supply and the problem of wastewater. The best option offered it special water treatment and strict control over the water «flow». It is also possible to keep water clean with the help of special filters.

2.c. Air pollution. One of the main issues of air pollution is fuel combustion. The exhaust brings a lot of chemicals to the air. These chemicals literally start dominating and it especially concerns SO2 emissions. The fuel combustion happens due to different means of transport and numerous enterprises requiring energy. Fuel combustion influences water and soil, leaving a terrible impact on the quality of oxygen and agricultural products. Agricultural products are produced by plants and therefore use oxygen for growth. As it has been mentioned the most dangerous element of fuel combustion is sulphur. And all the attempts to reduce the air pollution are concentrated in the possibility to reduce the emission of sulphur during fuel combustion and NOx produced when petroleum burns [3]. Once again UNEP’s priority is the creation of special filters and using another type of fuel. Which puts the countries in an economically unbeneficial position one more time. UN’s summits are concentrated on gathering statistics concerning this problem in order to evaluate exactly the danger and the location of primary sources of air pollution. This type of pollution strongly influences human health. The industrial activity of the countries is almost unstoppable. This is may be why UNEP has not achieved serious agreements on this term. The need to change the industrial policy frightens the countries. One contemporary way out has been offered – limiting the amount of cars per person/family and entering “bicycle” weekends. Nowadays a lot of laboratories under UNEP’s guidance work on creating natural equivalents to chemical joins.

2.d. Land use. Proper land use means that protected areas of land and water will remain untouched and save from the human factor. This especially concerns inland waters. It is no surprise that a lot of forests are nowadays cut from the surface of the planet [4]. Forests are the source of possible salvation for the planet’s atmosphere. Forests remove the gas emissions of fuel combustions. They decontaminate the atmosphere from the pollution. Land use also implies the correct use of agricultural territories and the division between temporary crops and permanent pastures . Land use is especially important in terms of the ability to provide food for the population. UNEP has shown concern about the land issue and it was especially revealed in UNEP’s Strategy on Land Use Management and Soil Conservation and UNEP Programme on Success in Land Degradation and Desertification along with GPA (Global Programme of Action). All this measures of collective control over the land use have already leaded to certain results. UNEP has made an impact in community participation in the proper land use process. Farmers started to use fewer pesticides and nitrates, which penetrate soil, while growing agricultural products, which leave the soil fertile and the population healthy. UNEP works on making the countries realize the further harm and even danger of incorrect land usage. The 2005 September summit has raised the land use issue and the discussion resulted in the agreement of further cooperation.

2.e. Waste.UNEP gives special attention to the problem of commercial and industrial waste, which has the worst impact on the enviroment development. Waste cause water and soil pollution because even if the waste is stored it may still a runout to the external enviroment. When a lot of waste is kept together and especially for a long period of time contamination may occur as often some kind of soil infection appears. The process of decomposition of the waste is also very dangerous for the health of people due to the existance of different harmful gases. According to the UNEP statistics division waste can also cause uncontrolled fires. One of the best solutions is an over-organized recycling system, which is to include all types of materials not only paper or plastic. UNEP has proclaimed the start of a sustainable consumption company that will start the new era of waste reduction, especially when it goes about municipal waste. The 1898 Basel convention came to the conclusion to remove waste from “environmental” UN countries to the third-world countries. This decision nowadays seems to be unethical as each country has a right to live in clean enviroment and hazardous wastes influence the planet no matter where they are. One of the best solutions offered by UNEP was the prohibition to found an industrial company that is unable to cover the expenses connected with the waste-issue and the limitation of the number of companies producing wastes and especially those that need to transport waste.

Conclusion: The contemporary enviroment is very weak and need help promptly. One of the keys to solve this problem is to act together. The United Nations Organizations in general and the United Nations Environmental Programme in particular have contributed a lot to the enviroment improvement process. The problem of environmental pollution and the necessity to create new ways out of harsh environmental crisis the planet is in have united many countries under UNEP. UNEP has performed such projects as the CARICOM project, the ESCWA project and the ECOWAS project. All of these projects present environmental data about different regions of different countries. The planet’s enviroment has suffered some serious changes and most of them are very dangerous. This is the reason UNEP’s interference into the course of event is simply necessary. UN includes all the most powerful counties in the world and it is them who need to think over new ways of prevention of further environmental pollution. The enviroment of the planet is its future and the future of the humanity. UNEP provide the example for the rest of the countries of what measures need to be taken in order to reduce the hazardous wastes and keep the planet’s water suitable for drinking and soil for growing crops. UNEP has made a great contribution and owing to its summits a lot of positive environmental projects were held. Un addresses a lot of environmental issues, but still there still exist a lot of problems to work on in order to preserve the planet for future population.

Specially located in the areas of Southern Africa, Northern Africa, the Middle East and South Western Asia

“Land under permanent pastures refers to land used permanently (five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land)”[United Nations Statistics Division].

1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

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UN System Essays

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

United Nations Security Council

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL REFORM

Most of my sources are drawn from the internet and from various books in the PUC library. I search in Google for articles of criticism of the United Nation Security Councils especially on the UNSC voting procedure. Then I compiled this criticism to show weakness of the UNSC. Base on this weakness, I search for articles and in books for ideas that would overcome this weakness. I put together these ideas into a reform of the UNSC. The citation I will use for this paper is the Harvard style.

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is an organ of the United Nations responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security. The UNSC consists of five permanent members (United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia and People’s Republic of China) and ten non-permanent members that serve two years term which five are replaced each year. Security Council members must always be present at UN Headquarter in New York so that the Security Council can meet at any time when there is an emergency.

On January 1, 1942, the United Nations Declaration was signed by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and the T. V. Soong, of China. A day later the Declaration was signed by twenty-two other nations [1] . Then, as World War II was drawing to a close, China, Great Britain, the USSR, and the United States met at Dumbarton Oaks to develop an organizational plans for the United Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks draft centered mainly round the Security Councils. In its original form the Security Councils had eleven members which five would be permanent members and six would serve term for two years (but due to diplomatic pressure in 1965 the number of members in the Security Council was increased to 15, but the permanent positions remained the same) . The Security Council had the responsibility to prevent future wars by taking necessary actions. One of the Dumbarton Oaks plan was that member states have to contribute army to the Security Council when needed to prevent war and suppress acts of aggression. The one problem with the Dumbarton Oaks plan was the lack of voting procedure in the Security Council. However, this was resolved at the Yalta Conference in February of 1945 by Prime Minister Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin. After Yalta, the San Francisco Conference was set for April 25 th , 1945. After many debates, the veto power was made official in Article 30 and was extended to the five countries commonly referred to as the “Perm 5.” The Security Council held its first historic meeting January 17, 1946, and has been taking actions for peace ever since.

UNSC POWER AND FUNCTIONS

Under the UN Charter, UNSC has power and functions:

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction
  • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor;
  • to recommend the admission of new Members;
  • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;
  • to recommend to General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

UNSC takes actions on any matters by voting to issue resolution. There are two kinds of matters that the UNSC must vote on. One is call a procedural matter that require any nine vote from the 15 members of the UNSC. The other one is substantive matters that need the affirmative votes of nine members and there should not be any negative vote (veto) from any of the permanent members (Under Article 27 of the UN Charter). A negative vote, or veto , by a permanent member prevents adoption of a proposal even if it has received the required number of affirmative votes. Because of this procedure, resolutions on substantive matters are hard to get pass. There are many criticisms around this matters and there are also call for a reform of the voting procedure, especially on the veto power of the permanent members.

CRITISISM OF UNSC POWER AND CALL FOR REFORM

There have been criticisms that the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (who are all nuclear powers) has unchecked powers. This has lead to accuse that the UNSC only addresses the strategic interests and political motives of the permanent member. For example, UNSC devote themselves to protect the oil-rich Kuwaitis in 1991 but poorly protecting resource-poor Rwandans in 1994 [2] . Any nation may be elected to serve a temporary term on the Security Council, but critics have suggested this is inadequate. The non permanent members power are far less weaker than the permanent members. There are also criticisms on the number of permanent members and suggested the UN should be expanded the membership of the permanent members to include non-nuclear powers which would democratize the organization. Another criticism of the Security Council involves the veto power of the five permanent nations. One veto from any of the permanent member prevent the UNSC to adopt resolution to take any possible action that the Council otherwise should take. This veto power destroy the democracy concept of majority opinion in the United Nations Security Council.

There is one way to reform the voting procedure of the Security Council on substantive matter that veto power does count. It is not to take away the veto power but to find a way to override it so one veto vote would not halt the action of the UNSC. The current procedure on substantive matter is 9 votes with all 5 affirmatives vote from the Perm5. To reform this procedure is to add a condition to override the veto. For example, if there is a veto vote then the proportion of 9 out 15 will increase to 11 out of 15 (2 more votes needed). If there is 2 veto votes then the proportion will increase to 14 out of 15 (3 more extra votes needed). However, if three is 3 veto votes then the UNSC can not override these veto votes because 3 veto votes out of the 5 permanent votes is a majority within the Perm5. This reform is to implement democracy concept into the UNSC. Minority opinion of the Perm5, which mean only 2 veto votes, can be challenged. But when this veto votes reach the number of 3 then it will become a majority opinion within the Perm5, then it can not be challenged. This reform also grant more power to the non permanent members making their voices become more important to the Security Council, to the permanent members and to the world.

There is also a suggestion for the Perm5 to use their veto vote collectively [3] . It means that to veto any resolution then the Perm5 need more than one veto vote. For example, if United States wants to veto a resolution then US need support from another member of the Perm5 such as from the UK. This will reduce the power of each member of the Perm5 in term of their veto vote.

Another way to reduce the power of the Perm5 is to ask the permanent members “pledge themselves to refrain from the use of veto in cases of genocide and large-scale human rights abuses.” [4]

Another voting procedure is a mechanism whereby Security Council members could call for a paragraph by paragraph vote on resolutions [5] . By doing this, the whole resolution won’t get stuck because of the veto. Members of the UNSC could vote affirmatively on paragraph that they like and veto part that they don’t like. Therefore, there is a chance that part of a resolution, if not all, might get pass.

The ultimate reform of the voting procedure is to completely abolish the veto power [6] . All 15 members have 1 equal vote and the proportion vote 9 out of 15 remain the same. However, this reform is most unlikely to happen because Perm5 would never amend the UN Charter to give up there veto power completely.

Another reform is to increase the members of the Security Council. As the criticism above mention, the perm5 are all nuclear power and they seem to vote only affirmatively on matter related to their own interest. By increasing the members of the UNSC of those non nuclear power and by overriding the veto power then the outcome of the UNSC vote would likely to change its course from serving more of the Perm5 interest to serving more of the world interest.

-Trammel S., (2005).Commitee History and Structure of United Nations Security Council [online]. Available at http://www.cas.umt.edu/mun/2005/Working/Documents /SC_Backgrounder.doc . [accessed by January 20, 2008]

-ANON, (2008). United Nations Security Council [online]. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council [accessed by January 20, 2008]

– Deller N., UN Reform, the freedom to live in dignity, and the Responsibility to Protect,

Program Advisor, World Federalist Movement-Institute for Global Policy

-Bhatta G., 2001. Reforms At The UN, 1 st ed., Singapore University Press

[1] Sam Trammel, 2005, P.2

[3] Gambhir Bhatta,2000, P.239

[6] Gambhir Bhatta,2000, P.239

4 comments:

After i have read your essay. i found that your critism and reform on security council is very good.

Bu you mentioned that the 5 permanant members of the un is condtrol everything and don’t have balance.

Sure, now there are 192 members of the un. Do you think when we are equal in the UN what’s gonna happen? From my view, We need these powerful country to take control in order to stabalize the world security and peace. so we can not equallize to every members of the UN.

In addition, the 5 permanant members also could intervence or put pressure for every country dare to make nuclear bomb like North Korea. Wihout UN pemanant members cannot resolve this problem.

Dear Vuchet! After i have read through your article. it is very good as you mentioned in the scope and the reforming of the UNSC as what u really want the UNSC to change. but firstly it is hard to do it, and/or when the UNSC take this reforming then it mean that each problem can be solved and each resolution and decision could be made, then where can the troops of the UNSC go.. second, of course when we increase the number of perm5 then it is really good in order to balance or reduce the power of the perm5, but what about the new members, (have they ever controbute to the UN’s budget as the perm5), for me if so, then surely they must paid. through this do they agree or voluntarily to paid for that.

third, is about the veto power as u concerned, i think that veto power can be good and can be bad.. what is the bad is as u mentioned that it is hard to reach the solution as well to draft any resolution, but for that it also have the good affect as well. because as, if any resolution can be made as the veto power is reduce then there will made the world not stable, not as hamony as it would was.. such like the action in the Irapi war that the United State of America ask for the UNSC action, but then as the veto power of the perm5 that could limited the UNSC in order to take action on that. that is much better of having the veto power of the perm5..

Lastly, as you mentined about to seek for support in order to make one’s veto power in affect from another members,. i think that it can be such a doubt in that, as in my opinion it seem like one have to take side (in short like make any allies) then it seem like create any block again as the cause of the pre-world war II. in that, in this present day, we see that most country seem to favour in the US policy, or Liberalism Ideology.. so what about another country that do not follow or practice this, then they might face the bigger trouble than ever. but in fact they are also the UN member, they have a sit in the UN, every states are equal.. but then what is the equal mean.. how can China seek for her supportive?? then it seem like any or all of the resolution can be draft or make again if it is raise by the US side and hard for the China side in raising any .

it is all of my comment, please comment or give any respond to mine..

Oh, there are many scholars sharing different interesting points of view about the voting procedure. For me, I am not different from them, but the one I think is likely to occur is the suggestion for the P.5 to use their veto vote collectively meaning that veto any resolution need more than one veto vote so that the power of each member of the P.5 would be diminished.

The other recommendation of the voting dismantling the veto power is, furthermore, unlikely to take place as I do not expect the P.5 would make an amendment to the charter to totally abolish their veto power.

As a consequence, if the above-mentioned voting will not be possible, the old system of voting is still keeping the same- just like everything is again in the hand of the P.5.

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