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There are two kinds of factors why rural people seek for urban life. The first one is urban pull factor. They dream for higher wages, better housing and utilities, better school and hospital, more jobs opportunity, and more experience that they can get it all from a living in big cities as they think. The second one is urban push factor. We know that most of rural areas people are farmers. There’,s not much else to do anymore in the village but wait for harvest time and without higher level of education, availability of media, or facilities that they need, they might be stimulated to move to urban areas.

But after they reached what they called their dreamland, most of them must face more problems than what they had when they lived in villages. They will face some problems because of their insufficient abilities, experience, education, and skills those are needed for a good living in big cities. For instance, they can’,t provide housing or maybe they can’,t find any job. And then they just stranded with the option of staying in cities or coming back home.

As the result of urbanization, cities have more problems to overcome such as pollution, overpopulation, drug abuse, congestion, crime, poverty, traffic jam, slum areas, and many more. There must be something to solve these problems. Government and citizens should be involved because taking care of city problems can’,t be done entirely by government. The community can be even more successful because it deals directly with problem areas.

As the solution to solve those problems government can provide housing, create a new regulation transmigration program, provide skills training program, or start to develop in rural areas.

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Urbanization: Here is Your Essay on Urbanization

Urbanization: Here is your Essay on Urbanization!

Urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban areas, and the result is the growth of cities. It is also a process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas. Urbanization is a process that has occurred, or is occurring, in nearly every part of the world that humans have inhabited. People move into cities to seek economic opportunities. Urbanization is measured by the percentage of people, who are urban in a society, a region or the world. Urbanization, therefore, summarizes the relationship between the total population and its urban component. That is, it is mostly used as a demographic indicator or in the demographic sense, whereby, there is an increase in the urban population to the total population over a period of time.

Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Suburbia_by_David_Shankbone.jpg

The concept of urbanization has a dual meaning—demographically and sociologically. The demographic meaning refers to the increasing proportion of population in a country or a region that resides in cities. Sociologically, it refers to the behaviour, institutions and materialistic things that are identified as urban in origin and use. In other words, it is a social process which is the cause and consequence of a change in the man’s way of life in the urban milieu.

In the urban areas, one can find a range of features like the loss of primary relationship and increasing secondary group relationship, voluntary associations, plurality of norms and values, weaker social control, increasing secularization and segmentary roles—a greater division of labour, greater importance of the mass media and the tendency for the urbanites to treat each other instrumentally. Sociologists believe that all these are caused due to large number of population, which is heterogeneous, having come from various backgrounds.

Thus, the more denser, larger and heterogeneous the community the more accentuated are the characteristics associated with the urban way of life. Another aspect is that in the social world, institutions and practices may be accepted and continued for reasons other than those that originally brought them into existence and that accordingly the urban mode of life may be perpetuated under conditions quite foreign to those necessary for its origin.

John Palen in demographic terms defines Urbanization as ‘an increase in population concentration; organizationally it is an alteration in structure and functions’.

Eldridege substantiates this view. According to him, urbanization involves two elements such as the multiplication of points of concentration and the increase in the size of individual concentration.

Thompson Warren in Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences states ‘Urbanization is the movement of people from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities, generally large whose activities are primarily concerned with the government, trade, manufacture or allied interests’.

According to Anderson, ‘Urbanization is not a one-way process, but it is a two way process. It involves not only movement from villages to cities and change from agri­cultural occupation to business, trade, service and profession, but it involves change in the migrants’ attitudes, beliefs, values and behavior pattern.’ Thus, according to him, urbanization involves the following

i. Concentration of people at population densities higher than those associated with agricultural populations with only very rare exceptions on either side.

ii. Population shift (migration) from rural to urban areas.

iii. Occupational shift from agricultural to non-agricultural.

iv. Land-use shift from agricultural to non-agricultural.

From the above definitions, one can conclude that sociologists meant urbanization as a process of diffusion of certain modernizing traits or characteristics in a population. It is often considered to be a causal factor of modernization. Thus, urbanization can be summarized as a process which reveals itself through temporal, spatial and sectoral changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental aspects of life in a given society.

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Urbanization Essay : Short Essay on Urbanization

Urbanization Essay : Short Essay on Urbanization!

Urbanization is a process of change, which leads to the emergence and development of a human settlement with an ecological milieu and a style of life that marks a shift away from tribal and rural settlement and lifestyle. Social scientists take a view that it is a change towards civilization and development.

The destination of this change, however, could not be confirmed indeed. The process of change in society has been evolutionary. The social scientists have used different conceptual typologies to explain this change.

Change in society from simple to complex discussed by Herbert Spencer, from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity by Emile Durkheim, from gemeinschaft to gesselschaft by F. Tonnies and from homogeneity to heteroge­neity by Louis Wirth are the examples of typological interpretation of change in the sociological writings.

This evolu­tionary change also refers to the change from rural to urban way of life. With the increase in population and population density in a specific geographical area, the characteristics of urban way of life evolve.

Urbanization can be understood in terms of the typology of city and country. Robert Redfield makes a distinction between what he calls a folk society and a non-folk society. The folk society, according to Redfield, has unlettered, homogenous and self-sufficient small population. This type of community does not exist.

Redfield writes that no known society precisely corre­sponds to it. It was an ideal type of community, which was mentally constructed by Redfield for the heuristic purpose of explaining the process of change from rural to urban pattern of human settlement. The city, for him, is a place of people where non-folk type of culture exists.

Urbanization has a close link with the process of rural-urban migration. It is, therefore, broadly defined as a process of shift of rural population to what we call ‘urban centre’. This process of people’s drift to and congregation in a particular geographical space causes growth and expansion of the city.

Urbanization is also a multi-dimensional process of socio-cultural change. It is, therefore difficult to give an all-encompassing and widely applicable definition of urban­ization. It is because of its various aspects and dimensions that urbanization is studied in different disciplines of social sciences, such as geography, economics and sociology.

On the basis of different aspects, urbanization can be divided into three conceptual categories, viz., demographic, economic and socio-cultural. The demographic aspect relates to the concen­tration of population in a particular area leading to the increase in its population density and in turn to the development of many other characteristics.

The economic aspect refers to the movement of population from agricultural to non-agricultural sectors. This is a process of structural differentiation. Finally, the socio-cultural aspect is behavioural and relates to the change in the way of life. In the following paragraphs an attempt has been made to elaborate on these points.

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Urbanization essay

Urbanization is a big part of the modern world, without it, we would all be lost. While countries are growing at a rapid rate, the once ‘old’ cities of the past are expanding onto previously un-occupied lands and even sometimes creating new towns and cities. Suburbs of cities spring up all over the world all the time, and populations grow with them. Major areas or cities of countries are usually hubs of economic significance, and help shape the country into it’s true self. These areas help the country grow, and provide hundreds and thousands of jobs and careers for the citizens. Canada’s largest hub is Toronto, but all major Canadian cities have their own pledges to the Canadian and world economy. I’m going to dab a little bit into these metro areas, and explain what they do for Canada. Urbanization is essential for Canada’s economy because of the extensive growth and demand for commodities involved.

How is Urbanization tied into Canada’s Metropolitan Areas? How does it affect the people that live in them?

These questions are probably common, and need to be tended to. Urbanization is what makes Canada’s metro areas metro; people tend to look at most countries and see cities they think just appeared out of thin air. Urbanization is what shaped our cities into what they are today. Long ago, people didn’t live in cities; they tended to live in rural areas with the odd exception of a city or town of significance because of its central role in everyday life. Usually cities before the year 1200 were small with no more than 30,000 inhabitants. These cities were built because they were usually a capital, or a major trading area with markets and bazaars. Over time cities evolved to become walled and protected, and that too ‘stopped’ the growth of the cities. War, droughts, disease, all took a large toll on shaping cities in the past, and once a prosperous age came, people began to multiply. Once populations exceeded the city’s own capacity, suburbs were born. We see this today in many medieval-like towns and cities. Paris for example was once small and busy, now parts of the city walls are gone and roads were constructed to take people to new parts of the city. Paris has well over 9 million people now and is extremely busy. We also see this in Canada; the only walled North American city now exceeds its capacity, and walls were torn down to make way for a larger city. This city is Quebec, and one of Canada’s largest metro areas. Canadian cities are some of the fastest growing cities on the globe because they are so young. Most were founded between 1690 and 1840, which is very young compared to many African, Asian and European cities, which sometimes date back to before Christ.

Today Canada hosts a wide variety of urban sprawl, which is housing that, is put up quickly to house a lot of people fast. An example of urban sprawl can be found in Windsor Ontario’s: The Villages of Riverside, Forest Glade, Green Park, and Blue Heron Point. The highest quality of these urban sprawl lands is Green Park, followed by Forest Glade, Blue Heron Point, and finally The Villages of Riverside. Urban sprawl has its pros and cons, pros being, that people can move in fairly quick, easily afford these housing developments, and live away from the main city. Cons are, usually these housing developments are put up too fast degrading the overall quality of craftsmanship, making the area a low income ‘slum.’ (However, this is not always the case).

Canada’s largest cities are usually quite dense and populated with more than 100,000 people. These cities were once trading posts, forts, or plain old rural farms. Today, with Canada’s population of almost 32 million, 78% live in urban areas. If that’s not urbanization, then what is? The remainder 22% live on farms, or small villages. A settlement with a population over 3,500 is considered to be an urban area according to Canadian standards; anything less is rural.

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