Essay on Utopia
Instead the state is there to serve the people and ensure the peacefulness and happiness of everyone. The word utopia, which means "no place" in Greek, was first used to mean a perfect society in 1516 in the publication of Saint Thomas
More’s story "Utopia". The story depicted life as it was with its people and social institutions on an imaginary island. More’s Utopia gained critical acclaim and a wide audience. The term was subsequently used by all prominent social thinkers and visionaries to define other concepts of this kind. …show more content…
Some prominent examples of this type of writing include George Orwell’s 1984 and
Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World".
The places mentioned in those stories were all imaginary. Such a place does not exist in the world as we know it today. Therefore the word imaginary comes into play. I have heard of places that have experimented with the concept of a utopian environment but none have truly succeeded. One example is the community in Chicago which George Pullman attempted to control. He attempted to create a community in which every person was taken care for, all had adequate housing, medical attention and so forth. In return everyone would work for
Pullman’s company. The better he provided for his workers, the better he expected their attitude towards working for him would be. Not everything turned out as planned though. A panic in 1893 lead to Pullman lowering the employees wages, he did not however lower the employees rent and other charges in the company town. This lead to what was called the Pullman strike. The anticipated utopia had turned into a dystopia. (A dystopia would be the exact opposite of a utopia.) Federal troops arrived on July 4th to try to control the unrest.
Rioting broke out and several strikers were killed. It wasn’t until July 10th that the
Thomas More's Utopia Essays
Thomas More’s Utopia is a work of ambiguous dualities that forces the reader to question More’s real view on the concept of a utopian society. However, evidence throughout the novel suggests that More did intend Utopia to be the “best state of the commonwealth.” The detailed description of Utopia acts as Mores mode of expressing his humanistic views, commenting on the fundamentals of human nature and the importance of reason and natural law, while gracefully combining the two seemingly conflicting…
Utopia Z Essay
Utopia Z: Recreation Besides being able to live comfortable and easily, the people also have a lot of recreation to do, with in Utopia Z. All of the recreation, is located in the recreation dome, which is located between the Construction Plant, and the Hospital Dome. The Recreation Dome is filled with different activities, such as artificial ski-mountains, a swimming pool, and amusement park, an ice arena, a playground, a football field/track, a bungee jumping station, and a large…
Essay on Utopia
American nation. In Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs and Utopia by Thomas Moore, we are presented two life styles, which some might consider very similar in various ways. Both authors focus on a peaceful living lifestyle, to better the people of the nation. Although some of their specific details are different, I believe that Jacobs would definitely approve of the features that More develops in Utopia. Utopia occupies a crescent-shaped island that curves in on itself, enclosing a…
Essay on Utopia
Thomas More’s, Utopia is one of the most politically and socially influential texts to date. His audience, which ranges from academic and social scholars to college students, all can gain a different understanding of the work and it’s meaning. In order to fully comprehend More’s message, one must have an appreciation for the time and culture in which he lived. After grasping historical concepts, one reads Utopia, not as just a volume recounting a fictitious island society, but rather as a critique…
Utopia The text Utopia was written by Sir Thomas Moore in 1516, just before the outbreak of the Reformation. More’s life flourished through the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, which were influential years in the Renaissance, a flowering of art and thought that began in Italy and flooded through Europe and England. Humanists often stressed the dignity of man and the power of reason while remaining deeply committed to Christianity. Their thought and writings helped to break the…
Essay about There is no Universal Utopia
The idea of a utopia is one which has spanned many millennia. The first example of a utopia was the Garden of Eden, and since then mankind has endeavored to reach this perfect existence, a world without problems, where everyone can abide in peace. Just the word ‘Utopia’ summons up a whole assemblage of images, images which differ from person to person. This is why the concept of a utopia has been so tossed around, because no one can truly say what a utopia is. From Plato’s republic in 380BC right…
Utopia And Leviathan
society’s ills. Both Leviathan and Utopia contain faults in logic that work to undermine the very possibility for these new social structures. In the following I will show how each of their views for a new society give insight into what their beliefs of human nature are, while showing some similarities between them. I will point to some of the faults found with both of their arguments that suggest an implicit and at times contradictory view of mankind. More’s Utopia is a response to the world in which…
Utopia In the year 1515, a book in Latin text was published which became the most significant and controversial text ever written in the field of political science. Entitled, ‘DE OPTIMO REIPUBLICATE STATU DEQUE NOVA INSULA UTOPIA, clarissimi disertissimique viri THOMAE MORI inclutae civitatis Londinensis civis et Vicecomitis’, translated into English would read, ‘ON THE BEST STATE OF A COMMONWEALTH AND ON THE NEW ISLAND OF UTOPIA, by the Most Distinguished and Eloquent Author THOMAS MORE…
The Prince and Utopia
The Prince and Utopia The Prince and Utopia are honored as masterpieces that show two differing styles of government. Both books have many similarities and differences in the governments that are in the their respective stories. Many ideas from the governments they portray have profound impacts on our modern government such as various political principles like the military, economy, and religion. The Prince and Utopia are both interesting novels that show creative styles of government. The…
Belief in a Utopia
have laid in bed late at night thinking of how if only we had some magic power to change the world how much better the world. Even thinking about what we would change about the world. Many have tried to achieve a perfect society or in other words a utopia. Possibly the most famous utopian civilization was the Oneida Society built solely for the purpose of everyone being equal. Ultimately though the Oneida people collapsed under the greed of the people who used their metal making skills to create a…
I. What is Utopia
A utopia (pronounced you-TOE-pee-yuh) is a paradise. A perfect society in which everything works and everyone is happy – or at least is supposed to be.
Utopias are very common in fiction, especially in science fiction, where authors use them to explore what a perfect society would look like and what the problems might be in such a flawless society. However, very few fictional utopias are true utopias. Almost all of them are revealed to be the opposite of utopia—dystopia—during the course of the story. Utopian literature is generally about exploring real problems facing our world and making political, philosophical, or moral points through storytelling.
II. Examples of Utopia
The central worlds of ‘The Federation’ in Star Trek are often depicted as utopias – they are lush with greenery and beautiful architecture, and there is no evidence of any hunger, poverty, or war. Of course, the planets at the fringes of Federation space are far less utopian.
In The Republic, Plato describes his perfect society. However, it may seem far from perfect to us– for example, Plato’s society outlawed music! In fact, scholars still debate whether Plato really meant it to be a true utopia or whether he meant is as a criticism of utopian ideals, like most such stories.
III. The Importance of Utopia
Utopian stories are generally written to explore ideas about how society should or could be. For example, an eco-utopia would be a story exploring the concept of a society based on perfect harmony with nature. On the other hand, a libertarian utopia would be a society based on perfect freedom and individualism. These stories can be a great way to test out such philosophies by seeing how they would actually affect people in practice.
When you come across a utopian story or image, try to work out what kind of moral, political, or scientific ideal is being explored.
IV. Types of Utopia
All these utopias use and explore questionable morals or ethics, such as the genetic perfection of human beings. They might be about political ethics, environmental ethics, religious ethics, or the ethics of science.
Many utopias are based on a particular political, social, or economic philosophy. The author believes (or at least wants to explore the possibility) that a society following a pure form of their philosophy would be without flaws. Of course, no such utopias have ever existed in real life and in most stories, the society turns out to be very imperfect indeed, usually a nightmare. But they are still a source of inspiration to writers.
In an ecological utopia, humans live in perfect harmony with nature: their society produces no pollution, their food sources are sustainable, and the environment is protected, bringing about happiness for humans.
A religious utopia is one based on the precepts of a particular religion. Christian authors throughout history have written utopian stories about what society would be like if everyone was a perfect Christian. But you could also do the same thing for Islam, Buddhism, or any other religion – the problem, of course, is that it might not be persuasive to readers who belong to a different tradition!
In a technological utopia, scientists and engineers have worked out technological development, such as genetic engineering or total surveillance, perfectly. In these stories, human problems are treated as technical glitches, to be resolved solely through technology.
V. Examples of Utopia in Literature
In Omelas, everyone is happy. There is no poverty, injustice, sickness, or sorrow of any kind. Except, that is, in one tiny corner of a basement somewhere in town, where an innocent child is hooked up to a machine that causes her intense pain. The machine generates all the energy and income for the city of Omelas, and is the source of everyone’s happiness. But their happiness comes at a dreadful price.
This is the setup of Urula LeGuin’s The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas. This famous short story raises the question of whether living in a utopia would be OK if the price was torturing an innocent victim. Whether you see Omelas as a utopia or a dystopia, depends on your attitude toward “greater good” theories of morality, such as utilitarianism.
The renowned psychologist B.F. Skinner wrote a book called Walden Two, in which every aspect of human life is dictated by experimentally-verified science. In the book, scientists have discovered ways to raise children so that they are incapable of violence, cruelty, or selfishness. Skinner believed that science would one day be able to create a perfect world for humanity, and he wrote his book to explore that possibility.
Perhaps the most famous utopia / dystopia of all is the future England described in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where everything is managed to rational perfection. There is no poverty, ill health, lack of education, or war. They also no longer have romance, marriages, families, or other things that cause emotional conflicts. Everyone is told by the government to take a drug called soma which makes them happy and easy to control.
VI. Examples of Utopia in Pop Culture
Pixar’s WALL-E has another ambiguous utopia on-board the Axiom. The people have all their needs met by robots, and live entirely in comfort and ease. However, this life is also dystopian in a sense – because they have all their material comforts, the people on the ship are fat, lazy, and immature.
In the original Silver Surfer comics, the Silver Surfer’s home-world is a perfect utopia. Everyone on the planet is well-educated and benevolent, and their society runs smoothly. However, the Surfer decides he has to leave once he learns that people on other worlds do not have the same advantages, and he dedicates himself to making all planets enjoy the happiness of his home-world.
VII. Related Terms
A dystopia is the opposite of a utopia. It’s a society in which everything has gone horribly wrong and injustice or chaos holds sway. This might be a post-apocalyptic society where all governments have collapsed and human beings have to fight to survive; or it might be a totalitarian society in which powerful authority figures control every aspect of citizens’ lives. Dystopias are, naturally, more realistic and relevant to most people than utopias because our societies have many problems, and we worry about the future. In fact, dystopian stories are almost always about problems that we already have in this world. Dystopian fiction is far more common than utopian fiction!
In literature, seemingly utopian societies often turn out to be dystopian, as in the case of The Giver by Lois Lowry. In this book, the society at first appears to be perfect and orderly. But slowly we learn that people have gained their security and order by giving up their freedom and creativity, and ultimately we come to see this “perfect” society as dystopian.
Utopia: The Ideal Society Essay
Utopia: The Ideal Society
A utopian society is a society which has perfect political and social order. When talking about a utopian society, the word perfect is synonymous. A perfect society seems close, but is really very far away. The ideal society consists of knowledge, reverence, and equality. Knowledge is the information that people acquire and use to have a better awareness and understanding of things. Reverence is having a respectful attitude towards something or someone that is held in high regard. Equality is when all living things are equal, and no one or thing is any better than another. These are the grounds on which the utopian society can prevail.
The foundation of the ideal society rests on the human mind. Knowledge brings better understanding. Education and knowledge are very important to this society. Religion dies because people do not feel confused, inferior, or empty. Citizens of the utopia are content with knowing that they lack the knowledge of the overall scheme of things. Of course they seek out this knowledge, but they do not claim to profess this knowledge.
School is necessary to expand one’s knowledge. From the age of five to eighteen, children attend school. In this span of time, children are prepared for their place in utopia. School is where the children gain the tools that will allow them to maintain this utopia. The sort of job one gets depends on desire and availability. If the job desired is not available, a different job is taken until the desired job becomes available. It is recognized that everyone’s part is essential to a perfect society, so no one minds taking a different job than they desire. This is one example of how rationality plays a big part in utopia. Everyone can accept realities and the word “whine” is not a part of their vocabulary. Occupations such as doctors and lawyers are not held in high regard. Only jobs that merit praise receive it, such as teachers. This also pertains to everything else in utopia. Anything that is undeserving of praise is not valued.
Everyone gets what they are entitled to and greed no longer exists. No one takes more than they should, so everything is equally divided without actually having to divide it. Respect for fellow man is a driving force of this civilization. Crime does not exist, so law enforcement and courts do not exist either. Justice is already there without having to establish it. There is no government because it is not necessary, and there is no desire for it in the utopia. Nobody is ever treated unjustly or unfairly, and the thought of it is unfeasible due to the amount of reverence that is shared.
Not only do humans live in harmony, but humans and nature do as well. There is no unnecessary tampering or destruction of nature. Animals are no longer killed for food because it is realized that it was never essential. Nor are they slaughtered for clothing. Utopian citizens are good-natured. Anything worth caring for, they hold in very high regard.
Parents have no more than three children. This is the greatest number of children that parents can have while still paying essential attention to them. Parents in utopia are ideal, so nobody grows up with any unnecessary problems. People act within reason. Any sort of racist, sexist, ageist, homophobic, controlling or just plain hateful way of thinking or acting does not even exist.
In conclusion, concepts of the human mind and realities of the world must reside in harmony in order for a utopian society to succeed. Knowledge, reverence, and equality are the fundamental ingredients in a perfect social order. In the ideal society, these elements all come together to allow everyone to live in serenity. Nothing ever goes wrong, nor could anything ever. If anything went wrong in this society, it would no longer be perfect, and therefore it would no longer be a utopia. Utopia seems like it may be right in front of us, but unfortunately it is nowhere in sight.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 June 2016
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Modernism is variously argued to be a period, style, genre or combination or these; but it is first of all a word; one which exists along side cognate words. Modernism was first used in the early eighteen century simply to denote trends, characteristics of modern times, while in the nineteenth century itÐŽ¦s meaning encompassed sympathy with modern options, styles or expressions. In the later part of the nineteenth century Modernism referred to progressive trends in the Catholic Church. In literature it surfaced in Thomas HardyÐŽ¦s Tess of the dÐŽ¦urbervilles (1891), to denote what he called a general and unwelcomed creeping industrial ÐŽ§ ache of modernismÐŽÐ.
Modernism, as an international art term covers the many avant-garde styles and movements that proliferated under the names of Expressionism, Imagism, Surrealism, Futurism, Dadaism, Vorticism, Formalism and in writing, if not painting, Impressionism. It forbears were Darwin, Marx and Nietzsche; its intellectual guru was Freud.
Typical aspects of modernist writing are radical aesthetics, technical experimentation, spatial or rhythmic rather than chronological form, self-conscious reflexiveness, sceptism towards the idea of a central subject and a sustained inquiry into the uncertainty of reality. Modernism can be taken as a response by artists and writers to several things, including industrialisation, urban society, war, technological change and new philosophical ideas.
Technological changes meant that modernism was an art of a rapidly transforming world of industrial development, mechanisation, urbanisation, secularisation and mass forms of social interaction. In fiction new writers spearheaded a rejection of several of the fundamentals of classical realism.
This rejection of classical realism and the technological changes in modernism is effectively reflected in one of its powerful aspect called Science Fiction „o a special literary genre, different from other imaginative and fantastic literatures.
Science Fiction is a term that would seem to be contradictory as Science is the search of truth and Fiction is a creation or the imagination and yet science fiction is still a part of reality.
Science Fiction may be defined in general terms as a branch of literature that deals with the response of people to growth in science and technology. But there is always disagreement among critics regarding its definition and all of the many definitions offered by critics have been contradicted or modified by other critics and it is always possible to point out to texts consensually called Science Fiction that fall outside the usual definitions.
Damon Knight says that, ÐŽ§ Science Fiction is what we point to when we say it;ÐŽÐ and Norman Spinraid argues that, ÐŽ§ Science Fiction is anything published as science fictionÐŽÐ. The Oxford English dictionary which has been accepted as a general definitions by most of the writers, defines Science fiction as ÐŽV ÐŽ§imaginative fiction based on postulated scientific discoveries or spectacular environmental changes, frequently set in the future or on other planets and involving space or time travelÐŽÐ.
The Oxford dictionary along with the definition adds on, that the term Science Fiction or SF did not come into common usage until the 1920ÐŽ¦s for the date is important too.
Novels and stories written in what is generally known as science fiction were certainly produced before the 1920ÐŽ¦s „o for example, in the late 19th century by writers such as H.G.Wells and Jules Verne. Some criticism asserts that the first SF story comes from even earlier than that but they were specific and sometimes one ÐŽV off examples of imaginative fiction. It was not until 1920ÐŽ¦s that these sorts of writing became identified as belonging to a family of literature „o Science Fiction.
Books that deal with any of the following subjects, themes, trappings or props are liable to be thought of as science fiction: Spaceships, Interplanetary or Interstellar travel; Aliens and the encounter with aliens; Mechanicals robots; Genetic engineering, Biological robots or Androids; Computers; Advanced Technology, Virtual reality; Time travel; Alternative history and the most striking elements, Utopia and Dystopia.
Utopia and Dystopia are two contradictory elements of Science Fiction, yet both of them deal with the human future, but their way of approach is entirely opposite. For Utopia, is a place where all is well; A world state: international government; central bureaucracy; state-controlled land; population controlled etc., exists. It is often ruled by a voluntary ÐŽÒnobilityÐŽ¦ called SAMURAI ÐŽV the equivalent of PlatoÐŽ¦s guardian philosopher. But in recent years, we are told, that writers have seen the possibility of utopia approaching, but in the form of Dictatorships, Welfare states, Planned economies and all manner of bureaucracies, and they have become disillusioned. Thus the anti ÐŽV utopias seem a phenomenon of our contemporary world, no older perhaps than the government of Hitler, Stalin and Roosevelt.
Anti ÐŽV Utopia is nothing but Dystopia „o a chiliastic forecast of the doom awaiting mankind, a place marked by extreme mechanization or authoritarianism. A Dystopian depiction can be described as a dark vision of the future. That is hardly a satisfactory definition, though. Unfortunately, the different definitions that are available are not as congruent as one might wish. A few examples: –
ÐŽ§ An imagery, wretched place, the opposite of utopiaÐŽÐ (CasselÐŽ¦s concise English dictionary). ÐŽ§An imaginary place where people lead dehumanised an often fearful livesÐŽÐ, (Merriam- Webster).
Though the definitions are numerous in number the meaning remains the same.
It is truism that one of the most revealing indexes of dystopian fictions is that their similarity in describing nightmare states where men are conditioned to obedience, freedom is eliminated, and individuality crushed; where the past is from nature; where science and technology are employed, not to enrich human life, but to maintain the state close watch and control of its slave citizens.
Just as utopian or utopian fiction provide only a standard of comparison for admonitory or satirical purposes, against which the real world can be measured, so too, do Dystopian fictions in the literal meaning of the term „o indeed except for satires, there are very few dystopian fictions in existence.
One of the first recorded uses in dystopian sense was by John Stuart Mill, in a parliamentary speech in 1868. After
Thomas More’s Utopia
Thomas More wrote Utopia in 1516, shortly before the Reformation began. In this essay I will summarize Thomas More’s idea of ‘Utopia’ and discuss how it launched the tradition of the utopian novel.
Thomas More’s ‘Utopia’ follows a trio of protagonists made up of Sir Thomas More himself, Humanist thinker Peter Giles and the one time Chancellor of England Cardinal John Morton. All of these characters actually correspond to the biographical background of the real people, but they are still fictional characters and not proper representations of these people. For example, the character of Sir Thomas More may not hold the same views as Thomas More the author. In the novel, More is serving as an ambassador for England and King Henry VIII. He travels to Antwerp and when not on duty he spends much of his time discussing a variety of intellectual topics with his friend Giles who introduces him to a philosopher named Raphael Hythloday. They eat together and Hythloday tell them tales about his travels.
One of the things that Hythloday talks about is the island of Utopia. As he is describing the societies he has visited, Giles and More start to think he would serve as an excellent counsellor to King Henry VIII, but Hythloday refuses and the three begin to argue about it. Hythloday speaks of having a similar dinner with Cardinal John Morton where he spoke of many alternative civil practices that England could be using, but his proposals are scorned until the Cardinal begins to consider them. In short, Hythloday is demonstrating that there is no point in counselling a king who has already made up his mind since he expects everyone to agree with him. He also offers several more examples which he feels prove that no matter how good a policy is, those who are used to a different way of life will always look on it as insane.
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Hythloday goes on to describe Utopia in great detail, focusing on its geography and history. He explains everything about Utopia’s society painting it as a community based on rational thoughts, productivity and communal property. In Utopia there is no war, no class distinctions, no war and very little crime. He believes that Utopian society is much better than any in Europe. However, when he is finished with his descriptions, More says that they are too tired from all the talking to start discussing the finer points of the Utopian society. He believes that some of the customs observed are rather silly, but others are things he would love to see implemented in England although he feels that it will never actually happen.
Thomas More used Utopia to offer up a description of an ideal human society and in doing so he created the literary tradition of Utopian fiction. This particular tradition involves an author attempting to describe in detail their idea of a perfect human society. However, More also is sure to highlight that not everyone shares the same view of what makes a perfect society. Some say that More was using Utopia to make fun of European society.
In conclusion, Thomas More’s Utopia is a complex, but interesting tale of perfection in our society. Not only was Utopia a very good seller, but it also launched an entirely new sub genre.
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Definition of Utopia
The literary term utopia denotes an illusionary place that projects the notion of a perfect society to the reader. Here, the “perfect society” refers to ideal conditions achieved within the material world, as opposed to the expected idealism of afterlife in Christianity or other religions. Further, the citizens presiding in such utopias are bearers of a perfect moral code, or at the least, every violator of the moral code is harshly punished. A utopian society is one where all social evils have been cured.
Utopia and Heterotopia
An important distinction to be appreciated is that between an imaginary utopia and a live heterotopia. However, the terms should not be treated as opposites of one another. They denote a midway experience, with instances that are both real and unreal. Most of the examples that Foucault provides of heterotopias include several utopian aspects. However, the relationship between these two notions has tended to be ignored in the interpretation of heterotopia.
Description of Utopian Literature
A piece of writing that concerns itself with the description of a perfect society in the physical world, as opposed to the perfection of afterlife, is considered to be utopian literature. The original motives behind utopian novels were political, social, and philosophical. Plato’s The Republic, written around 380 BC, is usually considered the first example of Utopia in history.
Some traces of utopian elements can be found in Arthurian literature – in the idealization of King Arthur’s court at Camelot – but the trend followed by medieval poets involved romanticizing an imaginary past, rather than using hypothetical utopias for the purposes of criticizing political institutions and suggesting alternatives. It was by the time of Sir Thomas More’s book Utopia, written in 1516, that the notion of utopia was practically manifested, and his name for the imaginary kingdom became the new name for the writing genre.
Utopia examples show common characteristics, including the following:
- An elaborate description of the geographic landscape, often given by guides native to the region.
- The narrator or protagonist of the story is an outsider to the utopian society.
- He is very skeptical of the society’s modern political, social, economic, or ethical problems.
One of the common misunderstandings about utopian models is that they serve to project a better way of life. To the contrary, the reason behind such literature is to help the reader envision the problems, paradoxes, or faults entrenched within such a political framework.
Examples of Utopia in Literature
The examples quoted below portray various scenarios of utopia:
- Description of the Republic of Christianopolis, by Johannes Valentinus Andreae, 1619
- The City of the Sun, by Tommaso Campanella, 1602
- New Atlantis, by Francis Bacon, 1627
- Nova Solyma, the Ideal City, by Samuel Gott, circa 1649
- The Law of Freedom in a Platform, by Gerrard Winstanley, 1652
- Looking Backward, by Edward Bellamy, 1888
- News from Nowhere, by William Morris, 1890
- Freeland: a Social Anticipation, by Theodor Hertzka, 1891
- A Modern Utopia, by H. G. Wells, 1905
Function of Utopia
Over time, the vision encapsulating the notion of utopia has suffered radical transformations. Events such as war, church reform, revolution, and economic change have contributed toward the construction of a new type of utopia.
The term utopia formulated new shapes and new prefixes, each type having its own function and its own use. They are generally employed as a means of constructing an organized society in the reader’s mind. The writer makes use of the tool to highlight the discrepancies prevalent within an existing political and legal framework.
A utopian society is framed in such a manner as to present the idea of an ideal sociopolitical culture to the reader. The writer is presenting his audience with a standard example of a socially and morally fit society with the use of utopia, to make them realize the various deficiencies of their existing societal framework.
Utopia is a tool for exposing the flaws prevalent within an existing political structure. Further, the tool has been widely employed by writers who intended to make an impact on the consciences of readers. The writer uses utopia in order to portray a scenic picture in the eyes of the reader, in an attempt to make him fully appreciate the various diverging factors contributing towards the failings of the existing society. It deals with constructing a standard sociopolitical society in the reader’s mind, in order to criticize the prevalent legal norms.