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rely on religion, society or culture; it only depends on the

individuals themselves. The main philosopher of Virtue Ethics is

Aristotle. His theory was originally introduced in ancient Greek

times. Aristotle was a great believer in virtues and the meaning of

virtue to him meant being able to fulfil one’s functions. Virtue

ethics is not so much interested in the question ‘What should I do?’

but rather in the question ‘what sort of person should I become?’ It

has more to do with character and the nature of what it is to be

human, than with the rights and wrongs of actions. Instead of

concentrating on what is the right thing to do, virtue ethics asks how

you can be a better person. Aristotle says that those who do lead a

virtuous life are very happy and have sense of well-being. Happiness

is the ultimate goal for everyone in life. Aristotle’s definition of

happiness is, ‘happiness is the activity of the soul in accord with

After a while, these acts will become a habit and so the virtuous acts

part of our every day life and the person will be leading a virtuous

life. For example, if a singer practices singing everyday, they will

become better at it and used to doing it. People who practice their

virtues improve their skills and therefore becoming happier. According

to Aristotle the person who struggles to acquire virtues is in the

long run a better person and is much happier as they feel that they

deserve that happiness as they have worked very hard for it. By

continuously practicing their virtues people will soon be acting in

the right way. Aristotle says that virtues are something that we

acquire and are not just born with; people are not intrinsically good

or bad, but become good or bad according to their habits they develop

throughout their lives.

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they become the characteristic of the person. For example, a person

who has learnt the virtue of generosity is often called a generous

person because he or she is generous in all situations. Aristotle says

we are most likely to acquire virtues by observing others in our

society. If we experience other people being kind to us and see the

happiness it creates we are more likely to practice this virtue then

if we were just told to practice it. Aristotle said that the best way

of becoming virtuous was to follow in the footsteps of a virtuous

person, e.g. Mother Theresa.

These Vices are two extremes of the scale; one vice of excess and one

vice of deficiency. For example, for the virtue ‘modesty’, the vice of

excess would be bashfulness and the vice of deficiency would be

shamelessness. Aristotle mentions 12 virtues that all fall between two

vices. Some examples of these virtues are honesty, courage,

compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control,

and prudence. Such virtues must be refined; we must learn when to use

certain virtues and make sure that they do not fall into the vices; in

other words we must use them in moderation. For example we must not

ever use modesty in excess as we will become bashful, but at the same

time we must also not pass into the vice of deficiency-shamelessness.

country or society may not be the same as virtues in another. As

virtues have evolved through society it is possible that good actions

may be perceived as bad actions in another society. However the

virtues stay the same in every community as well as the ultimate aim

which is supreme happiness. Aristotle explains that all actions are

done in order to reach an aim or goal. A series of actions are also

leading towards an aim, for example getting up in to morning to go to

work, leads to making money, leads to feeding our families, leads to

going on holidays, etc. The utmost ultimate aim is to make people

happy; everything is subordinate to the supreme good, which is

happiness. This all-round well-being is known as eudaimonia.

Eudaimonia involves both being happy and also living well at the same

different for different people or cultures. Moral relativism states

that morality is dependent on the society. It states that there are no

moral absolutes and that there is no definite right or wrong. In some

societies certain behaviour is seen as morally right whereas in others

the same behaviour is not acceptable. To be a relativist is to accept

this principle and not to judge others for their behaviour. Moral

relativists accept that whether a moral code exists because of

tradition or religion, it may be needed to keep the society together.

Some people may argue that any moral code is better than no moral code

however the absence of moral rules would be disastrous for any

society, it would not survive.

understand and believe whatever you would like to however this is not

very practical; it would only bring about conflict within the society.

People need set rules or moral codes to live by in order to make the

right decisions and to keep society together in the long run. Without

a set moral code everyone would have the opinion that their ideas and

thinking is right; no one would be able to compromise. It would be

much easier for everyone to be living under the same ‘rules’. This way

people will know what is right and wrong without any disagreements.

like to believe is a good theory and one that would work in practice.

This theory allows people to disregard all set rules if ‘love’ is

involved in the situation. However Fletcher does not give a proper

definition of ‘love’ in his theory, therefore when do people know when

love is involved and they can disregard all the other rules in the

decision making? Everyone has their own view of what love is.

good for the greatest number’. However this is not a very useful

theory for people when making moral decisions as the hedonic calculus

which is provided to measure the pain and pleasure of the outcome of

the decision, may not provide all the information that is needed. The

hedonic calculus is also very impractical for the person to have to

measure each and every moral choice every time. It is not possible for

us to predict accurately what the outcome of our decisions will be and

By: Mikki • Essay • 291 Words • November 19, 2009 • 449 Views

Essay title: Virtue

Virtue is the key to a meaningful and happy life. According to ancient philosophers, Socrates and Aristotle, developing virtue is vital in order to lead a successful, fulfilling life. Though both men differ in their interpretations of a "good life," they both agree that the supreme life is one of virtuous meaning. Each of the philosophers have devised and implemented their own definitions and guidelines to acquire and practice a virtuous disposition. While it is agreed that knowledge and practice are the key to virtuosity, the philosophers disagree on fundamental rules to follow. The inherent question to be explored concerns the idea of virtue; what is it and how does one acquire it? The answer is anything but simple, but a blend of both philosophies can shed light on the two men's view on practicing a virtuous life. Socrates and Aristotle believe in distinct ends to a common mean.

According to Socrates, there are common practices and contracts people enter into in order to live in a society. A good life is inherently virtuous and, according

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Virtue Matrix Essay Sample

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Virtue matrix can be used as a framework for assessing opportunities for sociably responsible behavior. Some of the ways in which it can be used as a management tool can be explained with following figure. Fig 1: Virtue Matrix as a Management tool There are several managerial implications of Virtue matrix .Some of the ways in which Management can use it as an management tool are explained below: * CSR Innovation tool/ Competitiveness

* CSR Innovation tool/ Competitiveness enhancement tool: Managers can be creative on the frontier part of the Virtue Matrix and create innovative CSR activities. E.g. Google’s social benefit for employees. These innovations not only provide immense goodwill for the company but also provide impetuous contribution for CSR civil foundation enhancement. Thus management can use it as a CSR innovation tool. These innovations also help to enhance the competitiveness of the firm.

* Value enhancing tool: Management can concentrate on the civil foundation quadrant of the virtue matrix and thus fulfill the expectation of the stakeholders of the company. Company can comply with the rule and enhance the value of the stakeholders.

* Averaging tool: In the world of globalization companies feel difficult to incorporate CSR activities in other countries; as each of the countries have their own civil foundation. Hence Global companies can create alliance and use the virtue matrix of different countries to average the civil foundation. These would help in global CSR enhancement.

* CSR balancing tool: Generally incorporating intrinsic CSR activities can benefit only community and not the shareholders. There are other CSR activities which benefit only firm and shareholders. Such CSR activity choice is a difficult management task. Hence management can use the virtue matrix for balancing Structural (intrinsic) and Strategic (instrumental) CSR activities .Management can use it to create balanced CSR activities and thus enhance the value of the firm. This would help to reduce the collision of shareholders and community interest

* Cost diminution tool: Working on the Structural quadrant of the virtue matrix company can provide CSR benefits the community but it does not provide value to the company. So Company needs to make structural CSR decision only if it has chances to be turned into Civil Foundation. Hence company can make appropriate choice between the CSR activities to gain cost and competitive advantage.

These are some management implications of virtue matrix.

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