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Writing References – Oxford System

This is a guide on how to write references for various documents Oxford style intended for footnotes with complete bibliographic information (see Citing references Oxford) and reference lists. This guide is mainly based upon recommendations given in the book The Chicago Manual of style. The essential guide for writers, editors, and publishers. Chicago manual of style 17th ed.

Books with one Author

Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher, year of publication.

Bryman, Alan. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008.

Books with two or more Authors

Fabozzi, Frank J., Modigliani, Franco and Jones, Frank J. Foundations of financial markets and institutions. 4th ed. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010.

Books which are Edited (Anthologies)

For edited books include editor(s) in brackets after the name of the editor(s)

Allen, Jeffner and Young, Iris Marion (eds.). The thinking muse: feminism and modern French philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

The same information should be provided as for printed books, see examples above. For books that have been read or downloaded from a library website or bookshop you should add information about e-book at the end of the reference.

Bowen, Natasha K. & Guo, Shenyang. Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. E-book.

Some books whose copyright have expired are sometimes freely available on the internet. In those cases you should add the complete URL (http ://. ) and access date, the date you downloaded/read the book. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the web site where you found the book e.g. http://books.google.se/

Smith, Daniel. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing, 1902. http://www.treesandplantsmemoriesinsummer (Accessed 2012-05-21).

Strindberg, August. Three plays: countess Julie; the Outlaw; the Stronger. Boston: International pocket library, 1912. http://books.google.se/ (Accessed 2012-05-21).

Book Chapters

Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s) of book chapter; title of book chapter; In, title of book; first and family name(s) of editor(s) and ed(s) in brackets; edition (if not 1:st); page numbers of chapter; place of publication and publisher; year of publication

Journal Articles

Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s); title of article; journal name; volume and issue; year of publication ; page numbers of article

Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no. 1 (2005): 23–45.

Graham, Elspeth and Boyle, Paul. Editorial introduction:(re)theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. International Journal of Population Geography 7, no. 6 (2001): 389-394

Electronic Journal Articles

Same information included as for journal articles (see example above) and a DOI-number. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic article. DOI-numbers are permanent, which makes it possible to easily locate articles even if the URL of the article has changed. Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date (mainly articles that are freely available on the internet). Today the publisher often states how to write the reference.

Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no.1 (2005): 23–45. doi: 10.1080/15022250510014273.

Larsen, James E. and Blair, John P. The importance of police performance as a determinant of satisfaction with police. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 1, no.1 (2009): 1-10. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeba/ajeba111-10.pdf (Accessed 2010-09-29).

Newspaper Articles

Include (if available): author of article; title of article; magazine and date of article

Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian.10-09-22.

Newspaper Articles on the Internet

Same informaton as for a printed article (see above) and URL of article and date of access in brackets. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the newspaper e.g http://www.time.com/time/

Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 10-09-22. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/22/food-firms-lobbying-samuel-jutzi (Accessed 2010-09-30).

Web Pages/Internet Sources

Include (if available): author, organization, authority or company; (year) ; title of document or page; name of web site or owner of web site; last update of web page ; complete URL (http://. ) and date of access.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. 2010. http://www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3343,en_21571361_44315115_46064099_1_1_1_1,00.html

For blogs include title and posting date of individual blog entry:

Parker, Matt. 2010. The simple truth about statistics. Guardian.co.uk Science blog. 29 September. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2010/sep/29/statistics-lies-abuse (Accessed 2010-10-10).

Encyclopedias/Dictionaries

For articles/entries in online encyclopedias include (if available): author of article, title of article, name of encyclopedia, year of publishing,; complete URL (http://. ) and date of access. If there is no author, use the title of the entry or article first.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142824/Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (Accessed 2010-10-30).

Dissertations

Include information about university of graduation and title of degree.

Eckerberg, Katarina. Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process. PhD diss., Umeå University, 1987.

Landström, Mats. Two essays on Central Bank independence reforms. Lic. diss., Umeå university, 2009.

Conference Proceedings

Lectures/presentations at conferences and seminars are published in anthologies called proceedings. Title, year and city of conference are to be included if known. Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated as chapters in books. Sometimes those contributions are published in journals and are treated as journal articles.

Hall, C. Michael. North-south perspectives on tourism, regional development and peripheral areas. In Tourism in peripheries : perspectives from the north and south, Dieter K. Müller and Bruno Jansson (eds.), 19-38. Perspectives on tourism in Nordic and other peripheral areas, 2004, Umeå. Wallingford: CABI, 2007

Illustrations (photographs, figures, diagrams, tables etc.)

Illustrations created by others are often protected by copyright. In those cases you need permission from the copyright owner before you can you use the illustrations in your text. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list. If you use an illustration in your paper include a caption with the following information image number (e.g. Figure 1), title, creator of illustration and year.

Lennver, Anders. Night against procrastination [Photography]. 2012. http://www.ub.umu.se/nightagainstprocrastion/ (Accessed 2016-04-05).

State the name of the illustrator if different than the author of the work. If available also provide page number of the illustration:

Hazel, Edward.. Prague by day [Photography]. In Czech photography in the twenty-first century, S. Johnson (ed.), 32. Prague: Autumn Publishing, 2015.

If you have viewed an image of a work of art online, you should reference it as an online image, regardless of the original medium. If possible state the name of the artist and the collection:

Turner, Joseph. The Fighting Temeraire [Oil painting]. 1839. The National Gallery [online]. www. nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/josephmallord-william-turner-the-fightingtemeraire (Accessed 2016-04-05).

Television Programs

Lindsjö, Lars. UR Samtiden – Hur kan utåtagerande barn bemötas? [Television]. Stockholm: Sveriges utbildningsradio. 2011. http://uraccess.se/

Personal Communication

Personal communication includes more informal sources: e.g. letters, e-mails, phone calls or conversations. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference. If you have promised an interviewee anonymity you must keep that promise. You will find more information about rules and guidelines for research at CODEX. http://www.codex.uu.se/en/index.shtml

Please note that personal communication is sometimes not included in the reference list as the sources normally are not traceable. In those cases information about personal communication are provided only in the footnotes. Check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain!

A reference to personal communication should include as much information as possible; name, profession/position, details of personal communication; date

Svensson, Anna; student at Umeå university. Interview 2010-05-11.

Informant 1: Grammar school, Umeå . 12 boys and 12 girls, individual interviews 2010-05-09.

Smith, Veronica; Professor at the department of physics, Umeå University. Northern lights, lecture 2010-03-12.

Please note that e-mail addresses belonging to individuals should only be provided if the owner has given permission.

Writing References – Harvard System

This is a guide how to write references intended for reference lists formatted according to the Harvard style for various documents.

Books with one Author

Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; year of publication; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher.

Bryman, Alan. 2008. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Books with two or more Authors

Fabozzi, Frank J., Modigliani, Franco and Jones, Frank J. 2010. Foundations of financial markets and institutions. 4th ed. Boston: Prentice Hall.

Books that have editors (Anthologies)

For edited books include (ed.) or (eds.) between the name of the editor and year of publication – as in the example.

Allen, Jeffner and Young, Iris Marion (eds.). 1989. The thinking muse: feminism and modern French philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

The same information should be provided as for printed books, see examples above. For books that have been read or downloaded from a library website or bookshop you should add the information that it is an e-book at the end of the reference.

Bowen, Natasha K. and Guo, Shenyang. 2012. Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press. E-book.

It is allowed, and sometimes recommended to give the URL to the site, e.g. http://books.google.se/, rather than a very long URL that points directly to the book.

Smith, Daniel. 1902. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing. http://www.treesandplantsmemoriesinsummer (Accessed 2012-05-21).

Book Chapters

Include (if available): Last name(s) and first name(s) of author(s) of book chapter. Year of publication. Title of book chapter. In first and family name(s) of editor(s) and ed(s) in brackets. Title of book. Edition (if not 1:st). Place of publication: publisher, page numbers of chapter.

Malmberg, Anders. 2003. Beyond the cluster: local milieus and global connections. In Jamie Peck and Henry Wai-chung Yeung (eds.). Remaking the Global Economy. London: Sage Publications, 145-162.

Journal Articles

Include (if available): Last name(s) and first name(s) of author(s). Year of publication. Title of article. Journal name Volume (issue): page numbers of article.

Lundmark, Linda. 2005. Economic restructuring into tourism in the Swedish mountain range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5 (1): 23–45.

Electronic Journal Articles

Same information included as for journal articles (see example above) and a DOI-number. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic article. DOI-numbers are permanent, which makes it possible to easily locate articles even if the URL of the article has changed. Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date (mainly articles that are freely available on the internet). The publisher often states how to write the reference.

Lundmark, Linda. 2005. Economic restructuring into tourism in the Swedish mountain range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5 (1): 23–45. doi: 10.1080/15022250510014273.

Larsen, James E. and Blair, John P. 2009. The importance of police performance as a determinant of satisfaction with police. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 1 (1): 1-10. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeba/ajeba111-10.pdf (Accessed 2010-09-29).

Newspaper Articles

Include (if available): author of article. Year of publication. Title of article. Name of paper or magazine. Day and month of the article

Jowit, Juliette. 2010. Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 22 September.

Newspaper articles on the web

Same informaton as for a printed article (see above) and URL of article and date of access in brackets. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the newspaper e.g http://www.time.com/time/.

Jowit, Juliette. 2010. Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 22 September. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/22/food-firms-lobbying-samuel-jutzi (Accessed 2010-09-30).

Web Pages, Blogs and Twitter

Include (if available): author, organization, authority or company. Last update of web page (year). Title of document or page. Name of web site or owner of web site. Complete URL (http://. ) (Access date).

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2010. Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. http://www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3343,en_21571361_44315115_46064099_1_1_1_1,00.html

For blog entries and twitter messages state day and month of post:

Enever, Janet. 2015. A tentative view on primary language education policy in India. Forskarbloggen [Blog]. 7 March. http://blogg.umu.se/forskarbloggen/2015/03/a-tentative-view-on-primary-language-education-policy-in-india/ (Accessed 2015-08-14).

Fällström, Anders. 2015. Fewer topics in greater depth. #mathematics #Math Singapore math skills add up in the West http://cnb.cx/1M3BgPX. [Twitter]. 15 July. https://twitter.com/hyperconvex/status/621212215006392320 (Accessed 2015-08-14).

Encyclopedias/Dictionaries

For articles/entries in online encyclopedias include (if available): author of article, year of publication, title of article, name of encyclopedia; complete URL (http://. ) and date of access. If there is no author, use the title of the entry or article first.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142824/Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (Accessed 2010-10-30).

Dissertations

Include information about university of graduation and title of degree.

Eckerberg, Katarina. 1987. Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process. Ph.D. diss., Umeå University.

Landström, Mats. 2009. Two essays on Central Bank independence reforms. Lic. diss., Umeå University.

A typical referens to an electronically published thesis:

Abramowicz, Konrad. 2011. Numerical analysis for random processes and fields and related design problems. Diss. (Comprehensive summary), Umeå University. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46156 (Accessed 12-01-30).

Conference Proceedings

Lectures/presentations at conferences and seminars are published in anthologies called proceedings. Title, year and city of conference are to be included if known. Individual contributions to conference proceedings, if published in their totality (not abstract only) are treated as chapters in books.

Hall, C. Michael. 2007. North-south perspectives on tourism, regional development and peripheral areas. In Dieter K. Müller and Bruno Jansson (eds.), Tourism in peripheries : perspectives from the north and south, 19-38. Perspectives on tourism in Nordic and other peripheral areas, 2004, Umeå. Wallingford: CABI.

Sometimes those contributions that are only represented by abstracts in the proceedings are published in journals. You should in these cases not refere to the abstract in the proceeding but to the full article in the journal where it was published.

Illustrations (photographs, figures, diagrams, tables etc.)

Illustrations created by others are often protected by copyright. In those cases you need permission from the copyright owner before you can you use the illustrations in your text. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list.

Lennver, Anders. 2012. Night against procrastination [Photography]. http://www.ub.umu.se/nightagainstprocrastion/ (Accessed 2016-04-05).

State the name of the illustrator if different than the author of the work. If available also provide page number of the illustration:

Hazel, Edward. 2015. Prague by day [Photography]. In S. Johnson. Czech photography in the twenty-first century. Prague: Autumn Publishing, 32.

If you have viewed an image of a work of art online, you should reference it as an online image, regardless of the original medium. If possible state the name of the artist and the collection:

Turner, Joseph. 1839. The Fighting Temeraire [Oil painting]. The National Gallery [online]. www. nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/josephmallord-william-turner-the-fightingtemeraire (Accessed 2016-04-05).

Personal Communication

Personal communication includes more informal sources: e.g. letters, e-mails, phone calls or conversations. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference. If you have promised an interviewee anonymity you must keep that promise. You will find more information about rules and guidelines for research at CODEX. http://www.codex.uu.se/en/index.shtml

Please note that personal communication is sometimes not included in the reference list as the sources normally are not traceable. In those cases information about personal communication are provided only in the footnotes Check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain!

A reference to personal communication should include as much information as possible; name, profession/position, year, details of personal communication; date (day and month)

Svensson, Anna; student at Umeå university. 2010. Interview 11 May.

Informant 1: Grammar school, Umeå. 2010. 12 boys and 12 girls, individual interviews 9 May.

Smith, Veronica; Professor at the department of physics, Umeå University. 2010. Northern lights, lecture 12 March.

Please note that e-mail addresses belonging to individuals should only be provided if the owner has given permission.

Lee, Oscar. 2008. E-mail 13 May. < oscar.lee@umu.se >.

Television programs

Title. Year. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and time of transmission. URL.

Part of a series:

Antikrundan. Säsong 26, avsnitt 10. 2015. Sveriges television, svt1, 12 mars. http://www.svtplay.se/video/2750826

TV-program from UR-play:

Makt och maktlöshet. 2015. UR Play, Kunskapskanalen. 9 april, 15:30. http://urplay.se/Produkter/181494-Var-samiska-kamp-Makt-och-maktloshet

TV-program via UR access:

UR Samtiden – Hur kan utåtagerande barn bemötas? 2011. Kunskapskanalen. http://uraccess.se/products/162607

UR Samtiden – Samiska veckan 2015: Språkliga förbud. 2015. Kunskapskanalen. 14 april, kl. 16:00. http://uraccess.se/products/188771

Recorded lecture/presentation/speech/interview

Include if available: Last and first names of speaker or equivalent. Year of speech. Title of speech. [online]. Publisher. Complete URL (http://. ) and date of access.

If the publisher tells you how to site the lecture, use their suggested reference and just check to see that it conforms to the Harvard rules. See for example Henry Stewart Talks (available from our page for Audiovisual media).

a) as lecture/speech:

Satyarthi, Kailash. 2015. How to make peace? Get angry. [online]. TED talks. http://www.ted.com/talks/kailash_satyarthi_how_to_make_peace_get_angry (Accessed: 2015-05-03).

b) as online video:

TED talks. 2015, mars. How to make peace? Get angry. [online]. [Accessed: 2015-04-14] http://www.ted.com/talks/kailash_satyarthi_how_to_make_peace_get_angry

HarvardBusiness. 2008. Innovate Like Google. [online]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOioQxtJ4gI (Accessed: 2014-05-05).

Secondary Sources

To cite a source from a secondary source is generally to be avoided, since you are expected to have read the works you cite. If a primary source (original source) is not available you may use secondary sources. Only information about the secondary source would appear in the reference list. In the example below you have read Bob Smith’s book “Democracy” published 1981 where he on page 72 cites Tom Small’s book “Civil rights” published 1832:

Smith, Bob. 1981. Civil rights. Berlin: Herbst Verlag.

My five favorite reference books for writers

A printed book is sometimes the best place to find a solution to your question about writing style, punctuation, or grammar.

Here are my five favorite reference books.

  1. Edit Yourself: A manual for everyone who works with words by Bruce Ross-Larson. Everyone should own this small, inexpensive, easy-to-use book. I use Part II, the back of the book, the most. It lists troublesome words in alphabetical order. It’ll help you cut pretentious words and resolve problems such as deciding between “which” and “that.” Part I describes and offers solutions to problems common in everyday writing. Buy it today!
  2. Words into Type, based on studies by Marjorie E. Skillin, Robert M. Gay, and other authorities. This fat classic from 1974 is my second “go to” reference book when I’m flummoxed by a question of style, punctuation, or grammar. I go straight to the index to look for the word or type of problem. The book is aimed at individuals preparing manuscripts for publication.
  3. The Chicago Manual of Style was my favorite reference book for many years. It’s the most academic of the books on this list. You can also subscribe online to the manual and follow it on Facebook or Twitter.
  4. The Associated Press Stylebook. If you’ve ever heard an editor say, “We follow AP style,” they’re talking about the print or online edition of this style book. There’s even an iPhone app for this guide. If you’re geeky enough–like me–to consider owning multiple style guides, you may enjoy the sarcastic, not-to-be-trusted FakeAPStylebook Twitter account, in addition to the Twitter account of the real thing.
  5. The Grammar Bible by Michael Strumpf and Auriel Douglas. This book gives plain English explanations of vexing issues of grammar and more.
  • Garner’s Modern American Usageby Bryan Garner. This book runs over 900 pages in length, so it covers just about any question you may ask. But it’s so darned technical I only turn to it as a last resort.
  • The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White. If you care about good writing, you should read this classic at least once. An early edition is online at Bartleby.com.

If you’re passionate about good writing, you’ve probably got a favorite reference that I’ve overlooked. Please tell me about it.

Introduction to Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing: Free Tool

Reference in Harvard

in 60 seconds or less

Harvard Referencing: Guide

Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

“After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.

Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

  • Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

  • Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

  • Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
  • Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
  • Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

  • Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
  • Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).
  • Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
  • Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).
  • Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).
  • Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

  • Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Messer, L. (2015). ‘Fancy Nancy’ Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
  • Mms.com, (2015). M&M’S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
  • Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.
  • Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin. [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson.
  • Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Yardley.

If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.
  • Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
  • Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. (1994). Faces in the Night. [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library.

If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

  • Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.
  • Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
  • The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.

If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

If not published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.
  • Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014].
  • Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases

To cite a court case, use the following format:

  • Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case.
  • Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation.

**If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

  • Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
  • Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.
  • Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

  • Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood

**The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

  • Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

  • Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].
  • Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].

If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order.

Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).
  • Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39.

If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions.

Use the following format to cite the government publications:

  • Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

  • Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of Interview.
  • Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo.

If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
  • Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
  • 7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. . Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title or Description of Patent. Patent number.

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

  • Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in an electric vehicle. 5,392,873.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].

If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.
  • Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital.

If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

If found online, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students.
  • EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration. [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:

  • Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.
  • New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340.

If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

  • Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

  • Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher.
  • Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.

Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

  • Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “. he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

  • Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

  • “A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
  • “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most – yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

  • It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).
  • Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

  • “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

  • The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

  • Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).

In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

  • “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Need more example reference of Harvard style. Click here.

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