Writing thesis paper (order an essay inexpensively)

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Writers Workshop: Writer Resources

Writing Tips: Thesis Statements

Defining the Thesis Statement

What is a thesis statement?

Every paper you write should have a main point, a main idea, or central message. The argument(s) you make in your paper should reflect this main idea. The sentence that captures your position on this main idea is what we call a thesis statement.

How long does it need to be?

A thesis statement focuses your ideas into one or two sentences. It should present the topic of your paper and also make a comment about your position in relation to the topic. Your thesis statement should tell your reader what the paper is about and also help guide your writing and keep your argument focused.

Questions to Ask When Formulating Your Thesis

Where is your thesis statement?

You should provide a thesis early in your essay — in the introduction, or in longer essays in the second paragraph — in order to establish your position and give your reader a sense of direction.

Tip: In order to write a successful thesis statement:

  • Avoid burying a great thesis statement in the middle of a paragraph or late in the paper.
  • Be as clear and as specific as possible; avoid vague words.
  • Indicate the point of your paper but avoid sentence structures like, “The point of my paper is…”

Is your thesis statement specific?

Your thesis statement should be as clear and specific as possible. Normally you will continue to refine your thesis as you revise your argument(s), so your thesis will evolve and gain definition as you obtain a better sense of where your argument is taking you.

  • Are there two large statements connected loosely by a coordinating conjunction (i.e. “and,” “but,” “or,” “for,” “nor,” “so,” “yet”)?
  • Would a subordinating conjunction help (i.e. “through,” “although,” “because,” “since”) to signal a relationship between the two sentences?
  • Or do the two statements imply a fuzzy unfocused thesis?
  • If so, settle on one single focus and then proceed with further development.

Is your thesis statement too general?

Your thesis should be limited to what can be accomplished in the specified number of pages. Shape your topic so that you can get straight to the “meat” of it. Being specific in your paper will be much more successful than writing about general things that do not say much. Don’t settle for three pages of just skimming the surface.

The opposite of a focused, narrow, crisp thesis is a broad, sprawling, superficial thesis. Compare this original thesis (too general) with three possible revisions (more focused, each presenting a different approach to the same topic):

  • Original thesis:
    • There are serious objections to today’s horror movies.
  • Revised theses:
    • Because modern cinematic techniques have allowed filmmakers to get more graphic, horror flicks have desensitized young American viewers to violence.
    • The pornographic violence in “bloodbath” slasher movies degrades both men and women.
    • Today’s slasher movies fail to deliver the emotional catharsis that 1930s horror films did.

      Is your thesis statement clear?

      Your thesis statement is no exception to your writing: it needs to be as clear as possible. By being as clear as possible in your thesis statement, you will make sure that your reader understands exactly what you mean.

      Tip: In order to be as clear as possible in your writing:

      • Unless you’re writing a technical report, avoid technical language. Always avoid jargon, unless you are confident your audience will be familiar with it.
      • Avoid vague words such as “interesting,” “negative,” “exciting,” “unusual,” and “difficult.”
      • Avoid abstract words such as “society,” “values,” or “culture.”

      These words tell the reader next to nothing if you do not carefully explain what you mean by them. Never assume that the meaning of a sentence is obvious. Check to see if you need to define your terms (”socialism,” “conventional,” “commercialism,” “society”), and then decide on the most appropriate place to do so. Do not assume, for example, that you have the same understanding of what “society” means as your reader. To avoid misunderstandings, be as specific as possible.

      Compare the original thesis (not specific and clear enough) with the revised version (much more specific and clear):

      • Original thesis: Although the timber wolf is a timid and gentle animal, it is being systematically exterminated. [if it’s so timid and gentle — why is it being exterminated?]
      • Revised thesis: Although the timber wolf is actually a timid and gentle animal, it is being systematically exterminated because people wrongfully believe it to be a fierce and cold-blooded killer.

      Does your thesis include a comment about your position on the issue at hand?

      The thesis statement should do more than merely announce the topic; it must reveal what position you will take in relation to that topic, how you plan to analyze/evaluate the subject or the issue. In short, instead of merely stating a general fact or resorting to a simplistic pro/con statement, you must decide what it is you have to say.

      • Avoid merely announcing the topic; your original and specific “angle” should be clear. In this way you will tell your reader why your take on the issue matters.
        • Original thesis: In this paper, I will discuss the relationship between fairy tales and early childhood.
        • Revised thesis: Not just empty stories for kids, fairy tales shed light on the psychology of young children.
      • Avoid making universal or pro/con judgments that oversimplify complex issues.
        • Original thesis: We must save the whales.
        • Revised thesis: Because our planet’s health may depend upon biological diversity, we should save the whales.
      • When you make a (subjective) judgment call, specify and justify your reasoning. “Just because” is not a good reason for an argument.
        • Original thesis: Socialism is the best form of government for Kenya.
        • Revised thesis: If the government takes over industry in Kenya, the industry will become more efficient.
      • Avoid merely reporting a fact. Say more than what is already proven fact. Go further with your ideas. Otherwise… why would your point matter?
        • Original thesis: Hoover’s administration was rocked by scandal.
        • Revised thesis: The many scandals of Hoover’s administration revealed basic problems with the Republican Party’s nominating process.

      Do not expect to come up with a fully formulated thesis statement before you have finished writing the paper. The thesis will inevitably change as you revise and develop your ideas—and that is ok! Start with a tentative thesis and revise as your paper develops.

      Is your thesis statement original?

      Avoid, avoid, avoid generic arguments and formula statements. They work well to get a rough draft started, but will easily bore a reader. Keep revising until the thesis reflects your real ideas.

      Tip: The point you make in the paper should matter:

      • Be prepared to answer “So what?” about your thesis statement.
      • Be prepared to explain why the point you are making is worthy of a paper. Why should the reader read it?

      Compare the following:

      • Original thesis:
        • There are advantages and disadvantages to using statistics. (a fill-in-the-blank formula)
      • Revised theses:
        • Careful manipulation of data allows a researcher to use statistics to support any claim she desires.
        • In order to ensure accurate reporting, journalists must understand the real significance of the statistics they report.
        • Because advertisers consciously and unconsciously manipulate data, every consumer should learn how to evaluate statistical claims.

      Avoid formula and generic words. Search for concrete subjects and active verbs, revising as many “to be” verbs as possible. A few suggestions below show how specific word choice sharpens and clarifies your meaning.

      • Original: “Society is. ” [who is this “society” and what exactly is it doing?]
      • Revised: “Men and women will learn how to. ” “writers can generate. ” “television addicts may chip away at. ” “American educators must decide. ” “taxpayers and legislators alike can help fix. “
      • Original: “the media”
      • Revised: “the new breed of television reporters,” “advertisers,” “hard-hitting print journalists,” “horror flicks,” “TV movies of the week,” “sitcoms,” “national public radio,” “Top 40 bop-til-you-drop. “
      • Original: “is, are, was, to be” or “to do, to make”
      • Revised: any great action verb you can concoct: “to generate,” “to demolish,” “to batter,” “to revolt,” “to discover,” “to flip,” “to signify,” “to endure. “

      Use your own words in thesis statements; avoid quoting. Crafting an original, insightful, and memorable thesis makes a distinct impression on a reader. You will lose credibility as a writer if you become only a mouthpiece or a copyist; you will gain credibility by grabbing the reader with your own ideas and words.

      A well-crafted thesis statement reflects well-crafted ideas. It signals a writer who has intelligence, commitment, and enthusiasm.

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      Center for Writing Studies: 288 English Building, 608 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801

      How to Write a Research Paper

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      What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.

      STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC

      Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research.

      Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to “Buddhism”. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher.

      Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.

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      STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION

      For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.

      Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time.

      The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com.

      To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).

      Check out other print materials available in the Library:

      • Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs
      • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
      • Government Publications, Guides, Reports
      • Magazines, Newspapers
      • Vertical Files
      • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories

      Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:

      • Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.)
      • Google Scholar
      • Wall Street Executive Library
      • Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.)
      • Answers.com – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly.
      • Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.)
      • Magazines and Journals
      • Newspapers
      • International Public Library
      • Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.)

      Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.

      Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information.

      As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.

      STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT

      Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it.

      A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.

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      A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.

      It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas.

      Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read.

      Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers.

      A thesis statement should do the following:

      • Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research
      • Tell the readers what to expect from your paper
      • Answer the question you were asked
      • Present your claim which other people may want to dispute

      Make sure your thesis is strong.

      If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself.

      • Does my statement answer the question of my assignment?
      • Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument.
      • Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.
      • Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact?
      • Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal.

      A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author.

      STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE

      A research paper basically has the following structure:

      1. Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date)
      2. Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less)
      3. Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages)
      4. Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research:
      • Materials and Methods
      • Results (what are the results obtained)
      • Discussion and Conclusion etc.
      1. Reference
      2. Tables, figures, and appendix (optional)

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      An outline might be formal or informal.

      An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.

      Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers.

      In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.

      All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.

      Example of an outline:

      The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative.

      INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.

      BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.

      CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.

      STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES

      Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.

      Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.

      Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of your outline:

      Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline.

      STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT

      Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.

      Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.

      Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined.

      If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.

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      STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT

      Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly.

      CHECKLIST ONE:

      1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?

      2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?

      3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?

      4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing?

      5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments?

      6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?

      Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed.

      CHECKLIST TWO:

      1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?

      2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?

      3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?

      4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?

      5. Varying lengths of sentences?

      6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?

      7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?

      8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?

      9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?

      10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”?

      11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose”

      12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective?

      13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?

      For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918.

      There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on the field of your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor.

      There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more.

      APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

      MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source.

      You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting.

      STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER

      All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer.

      Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated.

      Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive.

      Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”

      How to Write Your Thesis

      I. Thesis structure

      II. Crosscutting Issues

      III. Editing Your Thesis

      I. Thesis structure

      Title Page

      • A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important. It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative.
      • Length should be

      1-2 paragraphs, approx. 400 words.

      Table of Contents

      • list all headings and subheadings with page numbers
      • indent subheadings
      • it will look something like this:

      List of Figures

      The list should include a short title for each figure but not the whole caption.

      List of Tables

      The list should include a short title for each table but not the whole caption.

      Introduction

      Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction. This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper, it is an important/interesting scientific problem that your paper either solves or addresses. You should draw the reader in and make them want to read the rest of the paper.

      The next paragraphs in the introduction should cite previous research in this area. It should cite those who had the idea or ideas first, and should also cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course.)

      Do not include descriptions of results.

      • The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs.
      • Indicate information on range of variation.
      • Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results – save that for the discussion.
      • Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.
      • Use S.I. units (m, s, kg, W, etc.) throughout the thesis.
      • Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings
      • Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. It is far better to say “X had significant positive relationship with Y (linear regression p<0.01, r^2=0.79)” then to start with a less informative like “There is a significant relationship between X and Y”. Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant.

      Note: Results vs. Discussion Sections

      Discussion

      Conclusions

      • What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations?
      • If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper?
      • Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.
      • Include the broader implications of your results.
      • Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion.

      Recommendations

      • Include when appropriate (most of the time)

      Acknowledgments

      References

      • cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own
      • if you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a reference
      • all references cited in the text must be listed
      • cite single-author references by the surname of the author (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis)
        • . according to Hays (1994)
        • . population growth is one of the greatest environmental concerns facing future generations (Hays, 1994).
      • cite double-author references by the surnames of both authors (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis)
        • e.g. Simpson and Hays (1994)
      • cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. and then the date of the publication
        • e.g. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be:
        • Pfirman et al. (1994)
      • do not use footnotes
      • list all references cited in the text in alphabetical order using the following format for different types of material:
        • Hunt, S. (1966) Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of the egg capsules of the whelk. Nature, 210, 436-437.
        • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1997) Commonly asked questions about ozone. http://www.noaa.gov/public-affairs/grounders/ozo1.html, 9/27/97.
        • Pfirman, S.L., M. Stute, H.J. Simpson, and J. Hays (1996) Undergraduate research at Barnard and Columbia, Journal of Research, 11, 213-214.
        • Pechenik, J.A. (1987) A short guide to writing about biology. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 194pp.
        • Pitelka, D.R., and F.M. Child (1964) Review of ciliary structure and function. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, Vol. 3 (S.H. Hutner, editor), Academic Press, New York, 131-198.
        • Sambrotto, R. (1997) lecture notes, Environmental Data Analysis, Barnard College, Oct 2, 1997.
        • Stute, M., J.F. Clark, P. Schlosser, W.S. Broecker, and G. Bonani (1995) A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Quat. Res., 43, 209-220.
        • New York Times (1/15/00) PCBs in the Hudson still an issue, A2.
      • it is acceptable to put the initials of the individual authors behind their last names, e.g. Pfirman, S.L., Stute, M., Simpson, H.J., and Hays, J (1996) Undergraduate research at .

      Appendices

      • Include all your data in the appendix.
      • Reference data/materials not easily available (theses are used as a resource by the department and other students).
      • Tables (where more than 1-2 pages).
      • Calculations (where more than 1-2 pages).
      • You may include a key article as appendix.
      • If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc.
      • List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures.
      • Note: Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than 1-2 pages and are not critical to your argument.

      II. Crosscutting Issues

      What Are We Looking For?

      Planning Ahead for Your Thesis

      Writing for an Audience

      Skimming vs. Reading

      Order of Writing

      Figures and Tables

      • The actual figures and tables should be embedded/inserted in the text, generally on the page following the page where the figure/table is first cited in the text.
      • All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc.
      • Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed (reference citations, data sources, etc.) and highlighting the key findings (think skimming). Include an index figure (map) showing and naming all locations discussed in paper.
      • You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss. Examine your figures with these questions in mind:
        1. Is the figure self-explanatory?
        2. Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated?
        3. Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars.
        4. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit.
        5. Could chart junk be eliminated?
        6. Could non-data ink be eliminated?
        7. Could redundant data ink be eliminated?
        8. Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space?
        9. Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table?
        10. Does the figure distort the data in any way?
        11. Are the data presented in context?
        12. Does the figure caption guide the reader’s eye to the “take-home lesson” of the figure?
      • Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible. If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be.

      Tying the Text to the Data

      Examine figure(s) or table(s) pertaining to the result(s).

      Assess whether:

      1. the data support the textual statement
      2. the data contradict the textual statement
      3. the data are insufficient to prove or refute the textual statement
      4. the data may support the textual statement, but are not presented in such a way that you can be sure you are seeing the same phenomenon in the data that the author claims to have seen.

      Giving Credit

      Different types of errors:

      1. direct quotes or illustrations without quotation marks, without attribution
      2. direct quotes without quotation marks, with attribution
      3. concepts/ideas without attribution
      4. concepts/ideas with sloppy attribution
      5. omitting or fabricating data or results

      Check references carefully and reread reference works prior to publication. The first time you read something, you will consciously remember some things, but may subconsciously take in other aspects. It is important to cross check your conscious memory against your citations.

      D. Kennedy, 1985, On Academic Authorship

      Sigma Xi, 1984, Honor in Science

      Yale University pamphlet on plagiarism

      Final Thesis

      • Make 3 final copies: 1 to mentor and 2 to department, so that we can have 2 readers.
      • Final thesis should be bound.
      • Printed cleanly on white paper.
      • Double-spaced using 12-point font.
      • 1-inch margins.
      • Double-sided saves paper.
      • Include page numbers.
      • The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses.
      • Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for.
      • Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help.
      • The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them.
      • Also see additional books listed as Resources.

      III. Editing Your Thesis

      Copy Editing

      1. Proof read your thesis a few times.
      2. Check your spelling. spellcheckers are useful for initial checking, but don’t catch homonyms (e.g. hear, here), so you need to do the final check by eye.
      3. Make sure that you use complete sentences
      4. Check your grammar: punctuation, sentence structure, subject-verb agreement (plural or singular), tense consistency, etc.
      5. Give it to others to read and comment.

      Content Editing

      1. logic
      2. repetition, relevance
      3. style

      Avoiding ambiguity

      1. Do not allow run-on sentences to sneak into your writing; try semicolons.
      2. Avoid nested clauses/phrases.
      3. Avoid clauses or phrases with more than two ideas in them.
      4. Do not use double negatives.
      5. Do not use dangling participles (i.e. phrases with an “-ing” verb, in sentences where the agent performing the action of the “-ing” verb is not specified: ” After standing in boiling water for two hours, examine the flask.”).
      6. Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun (it, these, those, that, this, one) is crystal clear. If in doubt, use the noun rather than the pronoun, even if the resulting sentence seems a little bit redundant.
      7. Ensure that subject and verb agree in number (singular versus plural).
      8. Be especially careful with compound subjects. Be especially careful with subject/verb agreement within clauses.
      9. Avoid qualitative adjectives when describing concepts that are quantifiable (“The water is deep.” “Plate convergence is fast.” “Our algorithm is better.”) Instead, quantify. (“Water depths exceed 5km.”)
      10. Avoid noun strings (“acoustic noise source location technique”).
      11. Do not use unexplained acronyms. Spell out all acronyms the first time that you use them.

      Thesis length

      Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents.

      Necessary repetition: the main theme should be developed in the introduction as a motivation or working hypothesis. It is then developed in the main body of the paper, and mentioned again in the discussion section (and, of course, in the abstract and conclusions).

      Some suggestions on how to shorten your paper:

      1. Use tables for repetitive information.
      2. Include only sufficient background material to permit the reader to understand your story, not every paper ever written on the subject.
      3. Use figure captions effectively.
      4. Don’t describe the contents of the figures and/or tables in the text item-by-item. Instead, use the text to point out the most significant patterns, items or trends in the figures and tables.
      5. Delete “observations” or “results” that are mentioned in the text for which you have not shown data.
      6. Delete “conclusions” that are not directly supported by your observations or results.
      7. Delete “interpretation” or “discussion” sections that are inconclusive.
      8. Delete “interpretation” or “discussion” sections that are only peripherally related to your new results or observations.
      9. Scrutinize adjectives! adverbs and prepositional phrases.

      Although it varies considerably from project to project, average thesis length is about 40 pages of text plus figures. This total page count includes all your text as well as the list of references, but it does not include any appendices. These generalizations should not be taken too seriously, especially if you are working on a labor-intensive lab project. If you have any questions about whether your project is of sufficient scope, consult one of us early on.

      Welcome to the Purdue OWL

      Suggested Resources

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      Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

      This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

      Contributors: Elyssa Tardiff, Allen Brizee

      Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

      1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

      • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
      • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
      • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

      If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

      2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

      3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

      4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

      Thesis Statement Examples

      Example of an analytical thesis statement:

      The paper that follows should:

      • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
      • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

      Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

      The paper that follows should:

      • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

      Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

      The paper that follows should:

      • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

      Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

      Developing A Thesis

      Think of yourself as a member of a jury, listening to a lawyer who is presenting an opening argument. You’ll want to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the lawyer plans to convince you. Readers of academic essays are like jury members: before they have read too far, they want to know what the essay argues as well as how the writer plans to make the argument. After reading your thesis statement, the reader should think, “This essay is going to try to convince me of something. I’m not convinced yet, but I’m interested to see how I might be.”

      An effective thesis cannot be answered with a simple “yes” or “no.” A thesis is not a topic; nor is it a fact; nor is it an opinion. “Reasons for the fall of communism” is a topic. “Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” is a fact known by educated people. “The fall of communism is the best thing that ever happened in Europe” is an opinion. (Superlatives like “the best” almost always lead to trouble. It’s impossible to weigh every “thing” that ever happened in Europe. And what about the fall of Hitler? Couldn’t that be “the best thing”?)

      A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should “telegraph” how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay.

      Steps in Constructing a Thesis

      First, analyze your primary sources. Look for tension, interest, ambiguity, controversy, and/or complication. Does the author contradict himself or herself? Is a point made and later reversed? What are the deeper implications of the author’s argument? Figuring out the why to one or more of these questions, or to related questions, will put you on the path to developing a working thesis. (Without the why, you probably have only come up with an observation—that there are, for instance, many different metaphors in such-and-such a poem—which is not a thesis.)

      Once you have a working thesis, write it down. There is nothing as frustrating as hitting on a great idea for a thesis, then forgetting it when you lose concentration. And by writing down your thesis you will be forced to think of it clearly, logically, and concisely. You probably will not be able to write out a final-draft version of your thesis the first time you try, but you’ll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have.

      Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction. A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter (5-15 page) essays. Readers are used to finding theses there, so they automatically pay more attention when they read the last sentence of your introduction. Although this is not required in all academic essays, it is a good rule of thumb.

      Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you’ll need to refute later on in your essay. (Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn’t, then it’s not an argument—it may be a fact, or an opinion, but it is not an argument.)

      This statement is on its way to being a thesis. However, it is too easy to imagine possible counterarguments. For example, a political observer might believe that Dukakis lost because he suffered from a “soft-on-crime” image. If you complicate your thesis by anticipating the counterargument, you’ll strengthen your argument, as shown in the sentence below.

      Some Caveats and Some Examples

      A thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (“Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?”) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water.

      A thesis is never a list. “For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of “telegraphing” the reader what to expect in the essay—a section about political reasons, a section about economic reasons, a section about social reasons, and a section about cultural reasons. However, political, economic, social and cultural reasons are pretty much the only possible reasons why communism could collapse. This sentence lacks tension and doesn’t advance an argument. Everyone knows that politics, economics, and culture are important.

      A thesis should never be vague, combative or confrontational. An ineffective thesis would be, “Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because communism is evil.” This is hard to argue (evil from whose perspective? what does evil mean?) and it is likely to mark you as moralistic and judgmental rather than rational and thorough. It also may spark a defensive reaction from readers sympathetic to communism. If readers strongly disagree with you right off the bat, they may stop reading.

      An effective thesis has a definable, arguable claim. “While cultural forces contributed to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, the disintegration of economies played the key role in driving its decline” is an effective thesis sentence that “telegraphs,” so that the reader expects the essay to have a section about cultural forces and another about the disintegration of economies. This thesis makes a definite, arguable claim: that the disintegration of economies played a more important role than cultural forces in defeating communism in Eastern Europe. The reader would react to this statement by thinking, “Perhaps what the author says is true, but I am not convinced. I want to read further to see how the author argues this claim.”

      A thesis should be as clear and specific as possible. Avoid overused, general terms and abstractions. For example, “Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of the ruling elite’s inability to address the economic concerns of the people” is more powerful than “Communism collapsed due to societal discontent.”

      Copyright 1999, Maxine Rodburg and The Tutors of the Writing Center at Harvard University

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