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Biology/yellow fever term paper 532

Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted between humans by mosquitoes but is noncontagious. Yellow fever is known for effecting humans, but also effect monkeys and other animals. The disease occurs only in parts of Africa and South America. But there are only some countries in Africa and South America that have endemic Yellow Fever. In South America the countries are Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, Suriname, Western Ecuador, Guyana, French Guyana, Western Peru, Western Bolivia, and Eastern Brazil. In Africa the countries consist of Angola, Tanzania, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Ethiopia, southern Sudan, southern Sudan, southern Chad, southern Niger, southern Mali, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Rio Muni, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Burkino Faso, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal, Sao Tome and Principe Islands.

In these countries sporadic infections occur almost exclusively to forestry and agricultural workers who are exposed occupationally in or near forests. In Africa the virus is transmitted in three geographic regions. The moist savanna zones of West and Central Africa during the rainy season, urban locations and villages in Africa, and lastly in jungle regions.

Symptoms of the disease range from fever, chills, and headache to abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, hemorrhage from mucous membranes, and jaundice. There may appear to be a brief recovery before the disease progresses to more severe complications after the fifth day, including internal bleeding, kidney or liver failure, and degeneration of the heart. the deterioration of the liver cells results in yellow pigmentation on the skin which gives this disease it’s name. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 3-6 days. Death occurs in about 5% of those infected. But on the good side like many other diseases, once you’ve had it you’ll never get it again.

While in these countries the General precautions to avoid mosquito bites should be followed. These include the use of insect repellent, protective clothing, and mosquito netting. These mosquitoes bite mainly during the evening and morning hours.

Although yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in travelers, most countries require a certificate from travelers arriving from infected areas. Some countries in Africa require evidence of vaccination from all entering travelers. Vaccination is also recommended for travel outside the urban areas of countries which do not officially report the disease, but which lie in the yellow fever endemic zone. Other countries require an individual, even only in transit, to have a valid International Certificate of Vaccination if he or she has been in countries either known or thought to harbor Yellow Fever virus. Such requirements may be strictly enforced, particularly for persons traveling from Africa or South America to Asia.

The Yellow fever vaccine is a live virus vaccine that was created in 1937 by a south african physician named Max Theiler. A single dose confers long-lived immunity lasting 10 years or more. This vaccine has been used for several decades and has a very low rate of adverse reactions associated with it. After immunization an International Certificate of Vaccination is issued and is valid 10 days after vaccination to meet entry and exit requirements

for all countries. One dose of yellow fever vaccine may be administered to adults and children over 9 months of age. This vaccine is only administered at designated yellow fever centers, usually your local health department.

Travelers who have a medical reason not to receive the yellow fever vaccine should obtain a medical waiver. Most countries will accept a medical waiver for persons with a medical reason not to receive the vaccine. In such cases, obtain the waiver in writing from consular or embassy officials before departure. A physician’s letter clearly stating the medical reason not to receive the vaccine might be acceptable to some governments. It should be written on letterhead stationery and bear the stamp used by a health department or official immunization center to validate the International Certificate of Vaccination.

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Yellow Fever

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Philadelphia’s 1793 Yellow Fever: Narrative of the Proceedings of Black People Essay

. The 1793 yellow fever outbreak was a national problem. At this time the United States Capital was located in Philadelphia, PA. This essay will focus on the outbreak in Philadelphia, PA, particularly how a few different views of the African American community played a role. During this terrible time thousands of local residents fled Philadelphia, including prominent members of government such as the first United States President, George Washington along with many other community members. A local paper had an ad looking for people of color to help attend to the sick. The ad also assured those helped would not get sick ,and would be compensated. Responding to this ad was Absalom Jones and Richard Allen. Both men were leaders in the African American Community as well as free men. Fast forward to the details of what happened during this period. There were multiple theories as to the cause of the outbreak. Who could or couldn’t contract the disease was unclear as well. Also, accusations of theft and price gouging were made regarding those who helped. Then an article was written by Matthew Carey, a prominent white printer in Philadelphia. While he praised Richard Allen and Absalom Jones for their work (Winch) he suggested that blacks had caused the epidemic, and that some black nurses had charged high fees and even stolen from those for whom they cared. (Carey) This caused a printed rebuttal by Allen to save the reputation of the.

Yellow Fever 1793 Essay

. Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia 1793 The summer of 1793 was unusually hot and dry. Insects infested every corner in the streets, and Philadelphia was the busiest port in the U.S. Workers paced back and forth, carrying goods in and shipping goods out. In the midst of July, a ship of Caribbean refugees came to port. With them, they carried the yellow fever virus. The virus traveled slowly at first; with just a few fatalities in the first week, numbers grew steadily over time. No one suspected it was the aedes aegypti mosquito, retrieving the blood of an infected victim and transferring it to another healthy individual. The city’s leading physician Dr. Benjamin Rush had never seen anything like it before.[3] Three to six days after being infected with the virus, the victim would begin to show symptoms such as headaches, muscle and joint aches, a fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting and jaundice. Jaundice makes the eyes and skin look yellow, hence the name yellow fever. [1] In the second stage, the symptoms would falsely leave after three days; at this time, most people would recover. Others could get worse within 24 hours. [1] The yellow fever virus is a dormant, single strand of RNA, packaged in a lipoprotein envelope. The transmissions occur through bites of infected aedes aegypti or haemagogus mosquitoes. Human.

Yellow Fever essay outline

. Statement: Yellow Fever is a potentially dangerous virus but by following the right steps it can be prevented and hopefully eliminated. I. Overview of disease A. Basic Information 1. Causes a) Yellow Fever virus transferred by mosquitoes to humans b) Since 1974 only one genetic type can still be identified c) Transmitted between monkeys and mosquitoes and then from mosquitoes to humans. 2. Symptoms a) Incubates in body for 3-6 days before symptoms occur b) 2 disease phases (1) "acute" (1st phase)- is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, shivers, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. (2) "toxic stage"- 15% of patients. This phase can lead to kidney failure and 20-50% will die. The rest will live with minor complications. B. Recognition 1. Difficult during early stages 2. Can be confused with many other diseases. 3. Testing is necessary to diagnose II. Affected Location A. Africa 1. 33 countries presently infected with the yellow fever virus. 2. 508 million people are at risk in these countries B. Americas 1. In 9 South American countries it is an epidemic. 2. Ecuador and Peru are high risk countries. C. Asia 1. No cases were ever reported 2. At risk of infection because of the high monkey and mosquito populations D. World Wide 1. 200,000 cases per year with 30,000 deaths reported 2. A lot of the cases are not reported so the number of.

Report, the Yellow Fever Essay

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Yellow Fever 1793

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Report, the Yellow Fever Essay

. disease -Common name: yellow fever -Scientific name: flavivirus and topotypes -History of oResearched „XWhere: Philadelphia, Cuba, and South Africa „XWhen: 1800, 1881, 1901, and 1939 „XWhy: It was researched because so many people were infected who were coming to America, and so many people were getting infected by the virus who lived near the port. „XHow: It was researched with the Aedes Aegypti mosquito and studied the people who were infected by the virus. oDiscovered „XWhen: From 1793 to 1822 „XWhere: In port cities of the United States. oMajor Doctors associated with „XDr. Benjamin Rush, Dr. Carlos Finlay, and Dr. Max Theiler. -What it affects: It affects the immune system for life. -Where it affects: It mainly affects the liver which destroys it and accumulation yellow bile pigments in the skin. -When it affects: After you are infected, it takes three to six months for the yellow fever to develop. -Why it affects: ? -How it affects: ? -Organizations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -Famous people infected: N/A -Interesting Facts: Yellow fever was the first human microbial disease discovered to be caused by an agent. It also could be filtered, and yet was smaller than any known bacteria. What is yellow.

Philadelphia’s 1793 Yellow Fever: Narrative of the Proceedings of Black People Essay

. The 1793 yellow fever outbreak was a national problem. At this time the United States Capital was located in Philadelphia, PA. This essay will focus on the outbreak in Philadelphia, PA, particularly how a few different views of the African American community played a role. During this terrible time thousands of local residents fled Philadelphia, including prominent members of government such as the first United States President, George Washington along with many other community members. A local paper had an ad looking for people of color to help attend to the sick. The ad also assured those helped would not get sick ,and would be compensated. Responding to this ad was Absalom Jones and Richard Allen. Both men were leaders in the African American Community as well as free men. Fast forward to the details of what happened during this period. There were multiple theories as to the cause of the outbreak. Who could or couldn’t contract the disease was unclear as well. Also, accusations of theft and price gouging were made regarding those who helped. Then an article was written by Matthew Carey, a prominent white printer in Philadelphia. While he praised Richard Allen and Absalom Jones for their work (Winch) he suggested that blacks had caused the epidemic, and that some black nurses had charged high fees and even stolen from those for whom they cared. (Carey) This caused a printed rebuttal by Allen to save the.

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Dengue Fever and Malaria Essay

. Dengue fever and malaria are commonly found in tropical areas as reported by Dr. Paula Siribaddana, who is a medical doctor and lecturer at the University of Colombo. Dengue fever is a viral infection caused by the bite of a female Aedes mosquito. Dengue fever occurs more frequently during warm, humid seasons, and spreads intensely in urban areas. This Aedes mosquito that transmit this are know to be day biters. After being bitten by Aedes mosquitoes, the side effects take about three to fourteen days before any signs or symptoms appear. The symptoms of dengue fever start with headaches, generalized weakness, and intense muscle, and low back pain. How is dengue fever contracted? Aedes mosquitoes breed year round in water filled pots, plastic bags, and cans or anything that can hold water. One mosquito bite can inflict the disease. The catastrophic disease can be prevented. Cans and tires that lay year round should be put in good use, cans are recyclable and tires can be used for decorations, as displayed around the beautiful island of American Samoa. Flower pots that are filled with water should be emptied out. Plastic bags should be thrown in trash cans, instead of lying around on streets, attracting mosquitoes that could cause dengue fever. Malaria is and acute and sometime chronic infectious disease caused by a parasite.

Dengue Fever Essay

.  Dengue Fever Kimberly A. Bitanga Microbiology Professor J. Gray Dengue Fever Abstract Dengue fever is a debilitating tropical disease caused by one of five types of the dengue virus.(1) It is transmitted by mosquitos throughout the tropics and subtropics of not only Southeast Asia, but has now spread to Central and South America, and countries in the Pacific Ocean and America as well. Usually, most people who are infected with the virus are asymptomatic, with mild symptoms, whereas others develop life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. The usual diagnosis of this condition is based on reported symptoms and a physical exam. Although there are still no approved vaccine or specific antiviral drug for dengue fever, many clinical developments have been implemented and a vaccine may be available in the near future. (2) Introduction Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a virus known as dengue virus. This virus continues to infect the human race and is a growing health problem in the tropic and subtropic areas, even with our current state of advanced technology and medical care. Dengue virus is.

Yellow Fever Essay

. Yellow Fever Extra Credit Virus Classification: Group: Group IV Family: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus What’s the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the words ‘yellow fever’? People who alters to the color yellow? An incurable disease that can cause self-destruction? Yes and no. The keyword here is ‘mosquitoes’. That’s right, tiny mosquitoes that carry a virus around to their victims. Yellow fever is only found in parts of South America and Africa with two different sequences of illness. Yellow fever has been the key to several upsetting outbreaks. The symptoms to this virus contain many unusual and unpleasant results; fortunately a prevention was developed that would give a ten year immunity from the disease. Some people’s first thought of yellow fever is where it’s origin to this virus. Yellow fever is found simply from parts of South America and Africa. This disease can only be carried by the female mosquitoes. There are two different cycles of the yellow fever: jungle yellow fever and urban yellow fever. Jungle yellow fever is primarily a sickness of monkeys. People can catch this disease by setting themselves in the central point of this innate.

Yellow Fever essay outline

. Statement: Yellow Fever is a potentially dangerous virus but by following the right steps it can be prevented and hopefully eliminated. I. Overview of disease A. Basic Information 1. Causes a) Yellow Fever virus transferred by mosquitoes to humans b) Since 1974 only one genetic type can still be identified c) Transmitted between monkeys and mosquitoes and then from mosquitoes to humans. 2. Symptoms a) Incubates in body for 3-6 days before symptoms occur b) 2 disease phases (1) "acute" (1st phase)- is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, shivers, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. (2) "toxic stage"- 15% of patients. This phase can lead to kidney failure and 20-50% will die. The rest will live with minor complications. B. Recognition 1. Difficult during early stages 2. Can be confused with many other diseases. 3. Testing is necessary to diagnose II. Affected Location A. Africa 1. 33 countries presently infected with the yellow fever virus. 2. 508 million people are at risk in these countries B. Americas 1. In 9 South American countries it is an epidemic. 2. Ecuador and Peru are high risk countries. C. Asia 1. No cases were ever reported 2. At risk of infection because of the high monkey and mosquito populations D. World Wide 1. 200,000 cases per year with 30,000 deaths reported 2. A lot of the cases are not reported so the number of.

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